Gallbladder cancer is uncommon disease, although it is not rare. Indeed, gallbladder cancer is the fifth most common gastrointestinal cancer and the most common biliary tract cancer in the United States. The incidence is 1.2 per 100,000 persons per year. It has historically been considered as an incu-rable malignancy with a dismal prognosis due to its propensity for early in-vasion to liver and dissemination to lymph nodes and peritoneal surfaces. Patients with gallbladder cancer usually present in one of three ways: (1) advanced unresectable cancer; (2) detection of suspicious lesion preoperatively and resectable after staging work-up; (3) incidental finding of cancer during or after cholecystectomy for benign disease.
Although, many studies have suggested improved survival in patients with early gallbladder cancer with radical surgery including en bloc resection of gallbladder fossa and regional lymphadenectomy, its role for those with advanced gallbladder cancer remains controversial. First, patients with more advanced disease often require more extensive resections than early stage tumors, and operative morbidity and mortality rates are higher. Second, the long-term outcomes after resection, in general, tend to be poorer; long-term survival after radical surgery has been reported only for patients with limited local and lymph node spread. Therefore, the indication of radical surgery should be limited to well-selected patients based on thorough preoperative and intra-operative staging and the extent of surgery should be determined based on the area of tumor involvement.
Surgical resection is warranted only for those who with locoregional disease without distant spread. Because of the limited sensitivity of current imaging modalities to detect metastatic lesions of gallbladder cancer, staging laparoscopy prior to proceeding to laparotomy is very useful to assess the
abdomen for evidence of discontinuous liver disease or peritoneal metastasis and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. Weber et al. reported that 48% of patients with potentially resectable gallbladder cancer on preoperative imaging work-up were spared laparotomy by discovering unresectable disease by laparoscopy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be avoided when a preoperative cancer is suspected because of the risk of violation of the plane between tumor and liver and the risk of port site seeding.
The goal of resection should always be complete extirpation with microscopic negative margins. Tumors beyond T2 are not cured by simple cholecystectomy and as with most of early gallbladder cancer, hepatic resection is always required. The extent of liver resection required depends upon whether involvement of major hepatic vessels, varies from segmental resection of segments IVb and V, at minimum to formal right hemihepatectomy or even right trisectionectomy. The right portal pedicle is at particular risk for advanced tumor located at the neck of gallbladder, and when such involvement is suspected, right hepatectomy is required. Bile duct resection and reconstruction is also required if tumor involved in bile duct. However, bile duct resection is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and it should be performed only if it is necessary to clear tumor; bile duct resection does not necessarily increase the lymph node yield.
Portal vein Embolizations (PVE) is commonly used in the patients requiring extensive liver resection but have insufficient Future Liver Remanescent (FLR) volume on preoperative testing. The procedure involves occluding portal venous flow to the side of the liver with the lesion thereby redirecting portal flow to the contralateral side, in an attempt to cause hypertrophy and increase the volume of the FLR prior to hepatectomy.
PVE was first described by Kinoshita and later reported by Makuuchi as a technique to facilitate hepatic resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The technique is now widely used by surgeons all over the world to optimize FLR volume before major liver resections.
PVE works because the extrahepatic factors that induce liver hypertrophy are carried primarily by the portal vein and not the hepatic artery. The increase in FLR size seen after PVE is due to both clonal expansion and cellular hypertrophy, and the extent of post-embolization liver growth is generally proportional to the degree of portal flow diversion. The mechanism of liver regeneration after PVE is a complex phenomenon and is not fully understood. Although the exact trigger of liver regeneration remains unknown, several studies have identified periportal inflammation in the embolized liver as an important predictor of liver regeneration.
PVE is technically feasible in 99% of the patients with low risk of complications. Studies have shown the FLR to increase by a median of 40–62% after a median of 34–37 days after PVE, and 72.2–80% of the patients are able to undergo resection as planned. It is generally indicated for patients being considered for right or extended right hepatectomy in the setting of a relatively small FLR. It is rarely required before extended left hepatectomy or left trisectionectomy, since the right posterior section (segments 6 and 7) comprises about 30% of total liver volume.
PVE is usually performed through percutaneous transhepatic access to the portal venous system, but there is considerable variability in technique between centers. The access route can be ipsilateral (portal access at the same side being resected) with retrograde embolization or contralateral (portal access through FLR) with antegrade embolization. The type of approach selected depends on a number of factors including operator preference, anatomic variability, type of resection planned, extent of embolization, and type of embolic agent used. Many authors prefer ipsilateral approach especially for right-sided tumors as this technique allows easy catheterization of segment 4 branches when they must be embolized and also minimizes the theoretic risk of injuring the FLR vasculature or bile ducts through a contralateral approach and potentially making a patient ineligible for surgery.
However, majority of the studies on contralateral PVE show it to be a safe technique with low complication rate. Di Stefano et al. reported a large series of contralateral PVE in 188 patients and described 12 complications (6.4%) only 6 of which could be related to access route and none precluded liver resection. Site of portal vein access can also change depending on the choice of embolic material selected which can include glue, Gelfoam, n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBC), different types and sizes of beads, alcohol, and nitinol plus. All agents have similar efficacy and there are no official recommendations for a particular type of agent.
Proponents of PVE believe that there should be very little or no tumor progression during the 4–6 week wait period for regeneration after PVE. Rapid growth of the FLR can be expected within the first 3–4 weeks after PVE and can continue till 6–8 weeks. Results from multiple studies suggest that 8–30% hypertrophy over 2–6 weeks can be expected with slower rates in cirrhotic patients. Most studies comparing outcomes after major hepatectomy with and without preoperative PVE report superior outcomes with PVE. Farges et al. demonstrated significantly less risk of postoperative complications, duration of intensive care unit, and hospital stay in patients with cirrhosis who underwent right hepatectomy after PVE compared to those who did not have preoperative PVE. The authors also reported no benefit of PVE in patients with a normal liver and FLR >30%. Abulkhir et al. reported results from a meta-analysis of 1088 patients undergoing PVE and showed a markedly lower incidence of Post Hepatectomy Liver Failure (PHLF) and death compared to series reporting outcomes after major hepatectomy in patients who did not undergo PVE. All patients had FLR volume increase, and 85% went on to have liver resection after PVE with a PHLF incidence of 2.5% and a surgical mortality of 0.8%. Several studies looking at the effect of systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the degree of hypertrophy after PVE show no significant impact on liver regeneration and growth.
The volumetric response to PVE is also a very important factor in understanding the regenerative capacity of a patient’s liver and when used together with FLR volume can help identify patients at risk of poor postsurgical outcome. Ribero et al. demonstrated that the risk of PHLF was significantly higher not only in patients with FLR ≤ 20% but also in patients with normal liver who demonstrated ≤5% of FLR hypertrophy after PVE. The authors concluded that the degree of hypertrophy >10% in patients with severe underlying liver disease and >5% in patients with normal liver predicts a low risk of PHLF and post-resection mortality. Many authors do not routinely offer resection to patients with borderline FLR who demonstrate ≤5% hypertrophy after PVE.
Careful analysis of outcome based on liver remnant volume stratified by underlying liver disease has led to recommendations regarding the safe limits of resection. The liver remnant to be left after resection is termed the future liver remnant (FLR). For patients with normal underlying liver, complications, extended hospital stay, admission to the intensive care unit, and hepatic insufficiency are rare when the standardized FLR is >20% of the TLV. For patients with tumor-related cholestasis or marked underlying liver disease, a 40% liver remnant is necessary to avoid cholestasis, fluid retention, and liver failure. Among patients who have been treated with preoperative systemic chemotherapy for more than 12 weeks, FLR >30% reduces the rate of postoperative liver insufficiency and subsequent mortality.
When the liver remnant is normal or has only mild disease, the volume of liver remnant can be measured directly and accurately with threedimensional computed tomography (CT) volumetry. However, inaccuracy may arise because the liver to be resected is often diseased, particularly in patients with cirrhosis or biliary obstruction. When multiple or large tumors occupy a large volume of the liver to be resected, subtracting tumor volumes from liver volume further decreases accuracy of CT volumetry. The calculated TLV, which has been derived from the association between body surface area (BSA) and liver size, provides a standard estimate of the TLV. The following formula is used:
TLV (cm3) = –794.41 + 1267.28 × BSA (square meters)
Thus, the standardized FLR (sFLR) volume calculation uses the measured FLR volume from CT volumetry as the numerator and the calculated TLV as the denominator: Standardized FLR (sFLR) = measured FLR volume/TLV Calculating the standardized TLV corrects the actual liver volume to the individual patient’s size and provides an individualized estimate of that patient’s postresection liver function. In the event of an inadequate FLR prior to major hepatectomy, preoperative liver preparation may include portal vein embolization (PVE).
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Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare but lethal cancer arising from the bile duct epithelium. As a whole, CCA accounts for approximately 3 % of all gastrointestinal cancers. It is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients with CCA present with either unresectable or metastatic disease. In a retrospective review of 225 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, Jarnagin et al. reported that 29 % of patients had either unresectable disease were unfit for surgery. Curative resection offers the best chance for longterm survival. Whereas palliation with surgical bypass was once the preferred surgical procedure even for resectable disease, aggressive surgical resection is now the standard.
In both the UK and the USA the annual death rate due to inguinal and femoral hernia has decreased in the last two to three decades. In the UK, deaths for inguinal and femoral hernia declined from 22 to 55% respectively from 1975 to 1990. The annual deaths in the USA per 100,000 population for patients with hernia and intestinal obstruction decreased from 5.1 in 1968 to 3.0 in 1988. For inguinal hernia with obstruction, 88% of patients underwent surgery with a mortality rate of 0.05%. These figures could be interpreted as showing that elective groin hernia surgery has reduced overall mortality rates.
In support of this contention is the fact that strangulation rates are lower in the USA than in the UK, which could be a consequence of the three times higher rate of elective hernia surgery in the USA. Even so, the available statistics show that rates of elective hernia surgery in the USA per 100,000 population fell from 358 to 220 between 1975 and 1990, although this may be an artifact of the data collection systems rather than a real decline.
During the period 1991–1992, 210 deaths occurring following inguinal hernia repair and 120 deaths following femoral hernia repair were investigated by the UK National Confidential Enquiry Into Perioperative Deaths. This enquiry is concerned with the quality of delivery of surgery, anesthesia, and perioperative care. Expert advisers compare the records of patients who have died with index cases. In this group of 330 patients many were elderly (45 were aged 80–89 years) and significantly infirm unfit; 24 were ASA grade III and 21 ASA grade IV. Postoperative mortality was attributed to preexisting cardiorespiratory problems in the majority of cases. In a nationwide study in Denmark of 158 patients dying after acute groin hernia repair, Kjaergaard et al. also found that these patients were old (median age 83 years) and fragile (>80% with significant comorbidity), with frequent delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Clearly this group of patients requires high-quality care by an experienced surgeon and anesthetist with skills equivalent to that of the ASA grade of the patient.
Postoperative care should necessarily take place in a high-dependency unit or intensive therapy unit; this may necessitate transfer of selected patients to appropriate hospitals and facilities. Sensible decisions must be made in consultation with relatives of extremely elderly, frail, or moribund patients to adopt a humane approach, which may rule out interventional surgery.
Forty percent of patients with femoral hernia are admitted as emergency cases with strangulation or incarceration, whereas only 3% of patients with direct inguinal hernias present with strangulation. This clearly has implications for the prioritization on waiting lists when these types of hernia present electively to outpatient clinics. A groin hernia is at its greatest risk of strangulation within 3 months of its onset. For inguinal hernia at 3 months after presentation, the cumulative probability of strangulation is 2.8%, rising to 4.5% after 2 years. For femoral hernia the risk is much higher, with a 22% probability of strangulation at 3 months after presentation rising to 45% at 21 months. Right-sided hernias strangulate more frequently than left-sided hernias; this is possibly related to mesenteric anatomy.
In a randomized trial, evaluating an expectative approach to minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias, Fitzgibbons et al. in the group of patients randomized to watchful waiting found a risk of an acute hernia episode of 1.8 in 1,000 patient years. In another trial, O’Dwyer and colleagues, randomizing patients with painless inguinal hernias to observation or operation, found two acute episodes in 80 patients randomized to observation. In both studies, a large percentage of patients randomized to nonoperative care were eventually operated due to symptoms. Neuhauser, who studied a population in Columbia where elective herniorrhaphy was virtually unobtainable, found an annual rate of strangulation of 0.29% for inguinal hernias.
Management of Strangulation
Diagnosis is based on symptoms and signs supplemented by diagnostic imaging when indicated. Pain over the hernia site is invariable, and obstruction with strangulation of intestine will cause colicky abdominal pain, distension, vomiting, and constipation. Physical examination may reveal degrees of dehydration with or without CNS depression, especially in the elderly if uremia is present, together with abdominal signs of intestinal obstruction. Femoral hernias can be easily missed, especially in the obese female, and a thorough examination should be performed in order to make the correct diagnosis. Frequently, however, physical examination alone is insuf fi ciently accurate to con fi rm the presence of a strangulating femoral hernia vs. lymphadenopathy vs. a lymph node abscess. In these instances, one may elect to perform radiographic studies such as an ultrasound or a CT scan on an urgent or emergent basis.
The choice of incision will depend on the type hernia if the diagnosis is confi dent. When the diagnosis is in doubt, a half Pfannenstiel incision 2 cm above the pubic ramus, extending laterally, will give an adequate approach to all types of femoral or inguinal hernia. The fundus of the hernia sac can then be approached and exposed and an incision made to expose the contents of the sac. This will allow determination of the viability of its contents. Nonviability will necessitate conversion of the transverse incision into a laparotomy incision followed by release of the constricting hernia ring, reduction of the contents of the sac, resection, and reanastomosis. Precautions should be taken to avoid contamination of the general peritoneal cavity by gangrenous bowel or intestinal contents. In the majority of cases, once the constriction of the hernia ring has been released, circulation to the intestine is reestablished and viability returns. Intestine that is initially dusky, aperistaltic, or dull in hue may pink up with a short period of warming with damp packs once the constriction band is released. If viability is doubtful, resection should be performed. Resection rates are highest for femoral or recurrent inguinal hernias and lowest for inguinal hernias. Other organs, such as bladder or omentum, should be resected, as the need requires. After peritoneal lavage and formal closure of the laparotomy incision, specific repair of the groin hernia defect should be performed. In this situation prosthetic mesh should not be used in an operative fi eld that has been contaminated and in which there is a relatively high risk of wound infection. The hernia repair should follow the general principles for elective hernia repair. It should be kept in mind, that in this group of predominantly frail and elderly patients with a very high postoperative mortality risk, the primary objective of the operation is to stop the vicious cycle of strangulation, and only secondary to repair the hernia defect.
The risk of an acute groin hernia episode is of particular relevance, when discussing indication for operation of painless or minimally symptomatic hernias. A sensible approach in groin hernias would be, in accordance with the guidelines from the European Hernia Society to advise a male patient, that the risk of an acute operation, with an easily reducible (“disappears when lying down”) inguinal hernia with little or no symptoms, is low and that the indication for operation in this instance is not absolute, but also inform, that usually the hernia after some time will cause symptoms, eventually leading to an operation. In contrast, female patients with a groin hernia, due to the high frequency of femoral hernias and a relatively high risk of acute hernia episodes, should usually be recommended an operation.
The abdomen is the lower part of the trunk below the diaphragm. Its walls surround a large cavity called the abdominal cavity. The abdominal cavity is much more extensive than what it appears from the outside. It extends upward deep to the costal margin up to the diaphragm and downward within the bony pelvis. Thus, a considerable part of the abdominal cavity is overlapped by the lower part of the thoracic cage above and by the bony pelvis below. The abdominal cavity is subdivided by the plane of the pelvic inlet into a larger upper part, i.e., the abdominal cavity proper, and a smaller lower part, i.e., the pelvic cavity. Clinically the importance of the abdomen is manifold. To the physician, the physical examination of the patient is never complete until he/she thoroughly examines the abdomen. To the surgeon, the abdomen remains an enigma because in number of cases the cause of abdominal pain and nature of abdominal lump remains inconclusive even after all possible investigations. To summarize, many branches of medicine such as general surgery and gastroenterology are all confined to the abdomen.
The incidence of choledocholithiasis in patients undergoing cholecystectomy is estimated to be 10 %. The presence of common bile duct stones is associated with several known complications including cholangitis, gallstone pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and hepatic abscess. Making the diagnosis early and prompt management is crucial. Traditionally, when choledocholithiasis is identified with intraoperative cholangiography during the cholecystectomy, it has been managed surgically by open choledochotomy and place- ment of a T-tube. This open surgical approach has a morbidity rate of 10–15 %, mortality rate of <1 %, with a <6 % incidence of retained stones. Patients who fail endoscopic retrieval of CBD stones, as well as cases in which an endoscopic approach is not appropriate, should be explored surgically.
Acute obstruction of the bile duct by a stone causes a rapid distension of the biliary tree and activation of local pain fibers. Pain is the most common presenting symptom for choledocholithiasis and is localized to either the right upper quadrant or to the epigastrium. The obstruction will also cause bile stasis which is a risk factor for bacterial over- growth. The bacteria may originate from the duodenum or the stone itself. The combination of biliary obstruction and colo- nization of the biliary tree will lead to the development of fevers, the second most common presenting symptom of cho- ledocholithiasis. Biliary obstruction, if unrelieved, will lead to jaundice. When these three symptoms (pain, fever, and jaundice) are found simultaneously, it is known as Charcot’s triad. This triad suggests the diagnosis of acute ascending cholangitis, a potentially life-threatening condition. If not treated promptly, this can lead to hypotension and decreased metal status, both signs of severe sepsis. When combined with Charcot’s triad, this constellation of symptoms is commonly referred to as Reynolds pentad.
Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration
Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) allows for single stage treatment of gallstone disease, reducing overall hospital stay, improving safety and cost-effectiveness when compared to the two-stage approach of ERCP and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Bile duct clearance can be confirmed by direct visualization with a choledochoscope. But, before the advent of choledochoscope, bile duct clearance was uncertain, and blind instrumentation of the duct resulted in accentuated edema and inflammation. Due to advancement in instruments, optical magnification, and direct visualization, laparoscopic exploration of the CBD results in fewer traumas to the bile duct. This has led to an increasing tendency to close the duct primarily, reducing the need for placement of T-tubes. Still, laparoscopic bile duct exploration is being done in only a few centers. Apart from the need for special instruments, there is also a significant learning curve to acquire expertise to be able to perform a laparoscopic bile duct surgery.
Morbidity and mortality rates of laparoscopic exploration are comparable to ERCP (2–17 and 1–5 %), and there is no clear difference in primary success rates between the two approaches. However, the endoscopic approach may be preferable for elderly and frail patients, who are at higher risk with surgery. Patients older than 70–80 years of age have a 4–10 % mortality rate with open duct exploration. It may be as high as 20 % in elderly patients undergoing urgent procedures. In comparison, advanced age and comor- bidities do not have a significant impact on overall complication rates for ERCP. A success rate of over 90 % has been reported with laparoscopic CBD exploration. Availability of surgical expertise and appropriate equipment affect the success rate of laparoscopic exploration, as does the size, number of the CBD stones, as well as biliary anatomy. Over the years, laparoscopic exploration has become efficient, safe, and cost effective. Complications include CBD laceration, stricture formation, bile leak, abscess, pancreatitis, and retained stones.
In cases of failure of laparoscopic CBD exploration, a guidewire or stent can be passed through the cystic duct, common bile duct, and through the ampulla into the duodenum followed by cholecystectomy. This makes the identification and cannulation of the ampulla easier during the post- operative ERCP. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration is traditionally performed through a transcystic or transductal approach. The transcystic approach is appropriate under certain circumstances. These include a small stone (<10 mm) located in the CBD, presence of small common bile duct (<6 mm), or if there is poor access to the common duct. The transductal approach is preferable in cases of large stones, stones in proximal ducts (hepatic ducts), large occluding stones in a large duct, presence of multiple stones, or if the cystic duct is small (<4 mm) or tortuous. Contraindications for laparoscopic approach include lack of training, and severe inflammation in the porta hepatis making the exploration difficult and risky.
With advancement in imaging technology, laparoscopic and endoscopic techniques, management of common bile duct stone has changed drasti- cally in recent years. This has made the treatment of this condition safe and more efficient. Many options are now available to manage this condition, and any particular modality for treatment should be chosen carefully based on the patient related factors, institutional protocol, available expertise, resources, and cost-effectiveness.
Patients with acute appendicitis can present at different stages of the disease process, ranging from mild mucosal inflammation to frank perforation with abscess formation. The reported overall incidence of acute appendicitis varies with age, gender, and geographical differences. Interestingly, while the incidence of non-perforated appendicitis in the United States decreased between 1970 and 2004, no significant decline in the rate of perforated appendicitis was observed despite the increasng use of computed tomography (CT) and fewer negative appendectomies.
Of 32,683 appendectomies sampled from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) hospitals between 2005 and 2008, 5,405 patients (16.5%) had a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis with peritonitis/abscess.
The definition of complicated appendicitis varies slightly in the literature. Clinicopathological diagnoses (gangrenous, perforated, appendiceal abscess/phlegmon) of acute appendicitis are commonly used for its definition. Classically, patients at the extremes of age are more likely to present with complicated appendicitis. Similarly, pre-morbid conditions including diabetes and type of medical insurance are significantly associated with the risk of perforation.
The importance of early appendectomy has also been emphasized to prevent perforation of the appendix and the sub- sequent negative impact on patient outcomes. However, more recent meta-analysis data supports the safety of a relatively short (12–24 h) delay before appendectomy, which was not significantly associated with increased rate of complicated appendicitis. Teixeira et al. also showed that the time to appendectomy was not a significant risk factor for perforated appendicitis but did result in a significantly increased risk of surgical site infection.
The outcome of patients with complicated appendicitis is significantly worse than patients with uncomplicated appendicitis. A population-based study from Sweden showed that, in a risk-adjusted model, patients with perforated appendicitis were 2.34 times more likely to die after appendectomy than non- perforated appendicitis patients. Because of its higher mortality and morbidity in patients with complicated appendicitis, the management of complicated appendicitis has evolved significantly over the last few decades.
Open or Laparoscopic Surgery
Since the first laparoscopic appendectomy was described by Semm in 1983, multiple studies have compared operative time, complication rates, length of hospital stay, hospital cost, and other outcomes between open and laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis. The most recent Cochrane review included 67 studies showing that laparoscopic appendectomy was associated with a lower incidence of wound infection, reduced postoperative pain, shorter postoperative length of hospital stay, and faster recovery to daily activity. In contrast, reduced risk of intra-abdominal abscesses and shorter operative time were found as the advantages of open appendectomy.
Due to increased surgeon experience in uncomplicated appendicitis, laparoscopic appendectomy is more frequently attempted even in complicated appendicitis cases as an alternative approach to open appendectomy. Although the general surgical steps for complicated appendicitis are similar to those for uncomplicated appendicitis, the laparoscopic procedure can be more technically demanding. Therefore, conversion from laparoscopic appendectomy to open appendectomy can be expected.
Despite these concerns, the laparoscopic approach in patients with com- plicated appendicitis has been proven to be safe and comparable to open appendectomy. Retrospective studies using a large database in the United States uniformly showed more favorable clinical outcomes (mortality, morbidity, length of hospital stay, readmission rate) and hospital costs in patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy when compared to open appendectomy. The real risk of developing an intra- abdominal abscess after laparoscopic appendectomy remains unclear. A meta-analysis by Markides et al. found no significant difference in the intra-abdominal abscess rate between laparoscopic and open appendectomy for complicated appendicitis, whereas Ingraham et al. showed a higher likelihood of developing an organ-space surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy.
The spleen, an important component of the reticuloendothelial system in normal adults, is a highly vascular solid organ that arises as a mass of differentiated mesenchymal tissue during early embryonic development. The normal adult spleen weighs between 75 and 100 g and receives an average blood flow of 300 mL/min. It functions as the primary filter of the reticuloendothelial system by sequestering and removing antigens, bacteria, and senescent or damaged cellular elements from the circulation. In addition, the spleen has an important role in humoral immunity because it produces immunoglobulin M and opsonins for the complement activation system.
The increased availability of high-resolution CT scan and advances in arterial angiography and embolization techniques have contributed to the success of nonoperative management of splenic injuries.
The hemodynamically stable patient with blunt splenic trauma can be adequately managed with bed rest, serial abdominal exams, and hemoglobin and hematocrit monitoring. This approach, in combination with occasional angiography, especially for grade III and IV injuries, confers a splenic salvage rate of up to 95%.
In the setting of expectant management, indications for angiography have been delineated by several studies and include the following CT scan features: contrast extravasation, the presence of a pseudoaneurysm, significant hemoperitoneum, high-grade injury, and evidence of a vascular injury. The goal of angiography is to localize bleeding and embolize the source with coils or a gelatin foam product. Embolization can occur either at the main splenic artery just distal to the dorsal pancreatic portion of the vessel—known as proximal embolization—or selectively at the distal branch of the injured vessel. The goal behind the former technique is to decrease the perfusion pressure to the spleen to encourage hemostasis. The disadvantage to this technique is global splenic ischemia, and many have questioned the spleen’s immunocompetence following proximal embolization.
Malhotra et al. examined the effects of angioembolization on splenic function by examining serum levels of a particular T-cell line. T-cell proportions between patients who had undergone splenic embolization with asplenic patients and healthy controls were similar suggesting some degree of splenic immunocompetency was maintained. A Norwegian study comparing blood samples from patients who had undergone angioembolization with healthy controls demonstrated that the study samples had similar levels of pneumococcal immunoglobulins and no Howell-Jolly bodies, suggesting normal splenic function. Although these preliminary studies remain encouraging, there is no definitive evidence that splenic immunocompetency is fully maintained following angio-embolization.
There is no question that advancements in interventional techniques have contributed to the successful nonoperative management of splenic injuries. This has certainly changed the strategy, but it has not completely replaced operative intervention. The challenge now remains predicting those patients who will ultimately require splenectomy.
Many groups have studied potential predictors of nonoperative failure. Earlier studies found that a higher injury grade, increased transfusion requirement, and hypotension on initial presentation consistently predicted failure of nonoperative management. More recent literature reflects the use of advanced imaging techniques for predicting which patients will ultimately require splenectomy. Haan looked at the overall outcomes of patients admitted with blunt splenic trauma and reported several radiographic findings that were prevalent among patients requiring splenectomy after angioembolization:
- contrast extravasation,
- significant hemoperitoneum,
- and arteriovenous fistula.
Among these characteristics, an arteriovenous fistula had the highest rate of nonoperative failure at 40%. Nonradiographic features associated with significant risk of nonoperative failure include age greater than 40, injury severity score of 25 or greater, or presence of large-volume hemoperitoneum.
Aside from radiographic findings, some groups have also examined the mechanism of injury and its association with nonoperative failure. Plurad et al. conducted a retrospective review over a 15-year period and found that patients who were victims of blunt assault were more likely to fail nonoperative management: 36% of these patients required splenectomy versus 11.5% of patients from all other mechanisms combined. These findings suggest that regardless of overall injury severity, individuals who sustain a direct transfer of injury to the left torso are more likely to require splenectomy.
Currently, the accepted standard of care for most splenic trauma is expectant management with close observation. Operative intervention is reserved for the hemodynamically labile patient who shows signs of active hemorrhage and who does not respond appropriately to fluid resuscitation. Although these clinical scenarios seem straightforward, it is often the condition of the patient who falls in between the two ends of the spectrum that can be the most challenging to manage. In the setting of advanced imaging techniques and interventional radiology, the trauma surgeon has more diagnostic information and more treatment options for the patient with splenic trauma.
IPMNs were first recognized in 1982 by Ohashi, but the term IPMN was not officially used until 1993. IPMNs are defined in the WHO Classification of Tumors of the Digestive System as an intraductal, grossly visible epithelial neoplasm of mucin-producing cells. Using imaging and histology, IPMNs can be classified into three types based on duct involvement:
1. Main-duct IPMN (approximately 25% of IPMNs): Segmental or diffuse dilation of the main pancreatic duct (>5 mm) in the absence of other causes of ductal obstruction.
2. Branch-duct IPMN (approximately 57% of IPMNs): Pancreatic cysts (>5 mm) that communicate with the main pancreatic duct.
3. Mixed type IPMN (approximately 18% of IPMNs): Meets criteria for both main and branch duct.
Due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, the overall incidence of IPMNs is difficult to define but is thought to account for approximately 3% to 5% of all pancreatic tumors. Most IPMNs are discovered as incidental lesions from the workup of an unrelated process by imaging or endoscopy. IPMNs are slightly more prevalent in males than in females, with a peak incidence of 60 to 70 years of age. Branch-duct IPMNs tend to occur in a slightly younger population and are less associated with malignancy compared with main-duct or mixed variants.
Because a majority of IPMNs are discovered incidentally, most are asymptomatic. When symptoms do occur, they tend to be nonspecific and include unexplained weight loss, anorexia, abdominal pain, and back pain. Jaundice can occur with mucin obstructing the ampulla or with an underlying invasive carcinoma. The obstruction of the pancreatic duct can also lead to pancreatitis. IPMNs may represent genomic instability of the entire pancreas. This concept, known as a “field defect,” has been described as a theoretical risk of developing a recurrent IPMN or pancreatic adenocarcinoma at a site remote from the original IPMN. The three different types of IPMNs, main duct, branch duct, and mixed duct, dictate different treatment algorithms.
MAIN DUCT IPMNs
Main-duct IPMNs should be resected in all patients unless the risks of existing comorbidities outweigh the benefits of resection. The goal of operative management of IPMNs is to remove all adenomatous or potentially malignant epithelium to minimize recurrence in the pancreas remnant. There are two theories on the pathophysiologic basis of IPMNs. The first groups IPMNs into a similar category as an adenocarcinoma, a localized process involving only a particular segment of the pancreas. The thought is that removal of the IPMN is the only treatment necessary. In contrast, some believe IPMNs to represent a field defect of the pancreas. All of the ductal epithelium remains at risk of malignant degeneration despite removal of the cyst. Ideally, a total pancreatectomy would eliminate all risk, but this is a radical procedure that is associated with metabolic derangements and exocrine insufficiency. Total pancreatectomy should be limited to the most fit patients, with a thorough preoperative assessment and proper risk stratification prior to undertaking this surgery.
There is less uncertainty with treatment of main-duct IPMNs. The high incidence of underlying malignancy associated with the IPMNs warrants surgical resection. IPMNs localized to the body and tail (approximately 33%) can undergo a distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. At the time of surgery, a frozen section of the proximal margin should be interpreted by a pathologist to rule out high-grade dysplasia. A prospective study identified a concordance rate of 94% between frozen section and final pathologic examination. If the margin is positive (high-grade dysplasia, invasion) additional margins may be resected from the pancreas until no evidence of disease is present. However, most surgeons will proceed to a total pancreatectomy after two subsequent margins demonstrate malignant changes. This more extensive procedure should be discussed with the patient prior to surgery, and the patient should be properly consented regarding the risks of a total pancreatectomy.
IPMNs localized to the head or uncinate process of the pancreas should undergo a pancreaticoduodenectomy. A frozen section of the distal margin should be analyzed by pathology for evidence of disease. As mentioned before, after two additional margins reveal malignant changes, a total pancreatectomy is usually indicated (approximately 5%). The absence of abnormal changes in frozen sections does not equate to negative disease throughout the pancreas remnant. Rather, skip lesions involving the remainder of the pancreas can exist and thus patients ultimately still require imaging surveillance after successful resection. A prophylactic total pancreatectomy is rarely performed because the subsequent pancreatic endocrine (diabetes mellitus) and exocrine deficits (malnutrition) carry an increased morbidity.
BRANCH DUCT IPMNs
Localized branch-duct IPMN can be treated with a formal anatomic pancreatectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, or distal pancreatectomy, depending on the location of the lesion. However, guidelines were established that allow for nonoperative management with certain branch- type IPMN characteristics.
These include asymptomatic patients with a cyst size less than 3 cm and lack of mural nodules. The data to support this demonstrate a very low incidence of malignancy (approximately 2%) in this patient group. Which nearly matches the anticipated mortality of undergoing a formal anatomic resection. In approximately 20% to 30% of patients with branch- duct IPMNs, there is evidence of multifocality. The additional IPMNs can be visualized on high-resolution CT or MRI imaging. Ideally, patients with multifocal branch-duct IPMNs should undergo a total pancreatectomy. However, as previously mentioned, the increased morbidity and lifestyle alterations associated with a total pancreatectomy allows for a more conservative approach. This would include removing the most suspicious or dominant of the lesions in an anatomic resection and follow-up imaging surveillance of the remaining pancreas remnant. If subsequent imaging demonstrates malignant charac- teristics, a completion pancreatectomy is usually indicated.
Recurrence rates with IPMNs are variable. An anatomic resection of a branch-duct IPMN with negative margins has been shown to be curative. The recurrence of a main- duct IPMN in the remnant gland is anywhere from 0% to 10% if the margins are negative and there is no evidence of invasion. Most case series cite a 5-year survival rate of at least 70% after resection of noninvasive IPMNs. In contrast, evidence of invasive disease, despite negative margins, decreases 5-year survival to 30% to 50%. The recurrence rate in either the pancreatic remnant or distant sites approaches 50% to 90% in these patients. Histopathologic subtype of the IPMN is correlated with survival. The aggressive tubular subtype has a 5-year survival ranging from 37% to 55% following surgical resection, whereas the colloid subtype has 5-year survival ranging from 61% to 87% post resection. Factors associated with decreased survival include tubular subtype, lymph node metastases, vascular invasion, and positive margins. IPMNs with evidence of invasion should be treated similar to pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Studies show that IPMNs tend to have better survival than pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This survival benefit may be secondary to the less aggressive tumor biology or the earlier diagnosis of IPMNs.
All patients who have a resected IPMN should undergo imaging surveillance. There is continual survival benefit with further resection if an IPMN does recur. International Consensus Guidelines published in 2017 offer recom- mendations for the frequency and modality of imaging surveillance after resection. Routine serum measurement of CEA and CA 19-9 has a limited role for detection of an IPMN recurrence. Of note, a new pancreatic lesion discovered on imaging after resection could represent a postoperative pseudocyst, a recurrence of the IPMN from inadequate resection, a new IPMN, or an unrelated new neoplastic process. IPMNs may also be associated with extrapancreatic neoplasms (stomach, colon, rectum, lung, breast) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear if this represents a true genetic syndrome. However, patients with IPMNs should have a discussion about the implications of their disease with their physician and are encouraged to undergo colonoscopy to exclude a synchronous neoplastic process.
The incidence of PANCREATIC CYSTIC LESIONS will continue to increase as imaging technology improves. EUS, cytology, and molecular panels have made differentiating the type of PCN less problematic. The importance of an accurate preoperative diagnosis ensures that operative management is selectively offered to those with high-risk lesions. Management beyond surgery, including adjuvant therapy and surveillance, continue to be active areas of research.
Surgery and anesthesia profoundly alter the normal physiologic and metabolic states. Estimating the patient’s ability to respond to these stresses in the postoperative period is the task of the preoperative evaluation. Perioperative complications are often the result of failure, in the preoperative period, to identify underlying medical conditions, maximize the patient’s preoperative health, or accurately assess perioperative risk. Sophisticated laboratory studies and specialized testing are no substitute for a thoughtful and careful history and physical examination. Sophisticated technology has merit primarily in confirming clinical suspicion.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide and its incidence is rising in North America, with an estimated 35,000 cases in the U.S. in 2014. The best chance for cure is surgical resection in the form of either segmental removal or whole organ transplantation although recent survival data on radiofrequency ablation approximates surgical resection and could be placed under the new moniker of “thermal resection”. The debate between surgical resection and transplantation focuses on patients with “within Milan criteria” tumors, single tumors, and well compensated cirrhosis who can safely undergo either procedure. Although transplantation historically has had better survival outcomes, early diagnosis, reversal of liver disease, and innovations in patient selection and neo-adjuvant therapies have led to similar 5-year survival. Transplantation clearly has less risk of tumor recurrence but exposes recipients to long term immunosuppression and its side effects. Liver transplantation is also limited by the severe global limit on the supply of organ donors whereas resection is readily available. The current data does not favor one treatment over the other for patients with minimal or no portal hypertension and normal synthetic function. Instead, the decision to resect or transplant for HCC relies on multiple factors including tumor characteristics, biology, geography, co-morbidities, location, organ availability, social support and practice preference.
Resection Versus Transplantation
The debate between resection and transplantation revolves around patients who have well compensated cirrhosis with Milan criteria resectable tumors. Patients within these criteria represent a very small proportion of those who initially present with HCC. This is especially true in western countries where hepatitis C is the most common cause of liver failure and HCC is a result of the progressive and in most cases advanced cirrhosis.
Given the need for a large number of patients to show statistical significance, it would be difficult to perform a high-quality prospective randomized controlled trial comparing resection and transplantation. In fact the literature revealed that no randomized controlled trials addressing this issue exist. Instead, outcomes of surgical treatment for HCC stem from retrospective analyses that have inherent detection, selection and attrition biases.
Given the numerous articles available on this subject, several meta-analyses have been published to delineate the role of transplantation and resection for treatment of HCC. However, there is reason to be wary of these meta-analyses because they pool data from heterogeneous populations with variable selection criteria and treatment protocols. One such meta-analysis by Dhir et al. focused their choice of articles to strict criteria which excluded studies with non-cirrhotic patients, fibrolamellar HCC and hepato-cholangiocarcinomas but included those with HCC within Milan criteria and computation of 5-year survival; between 1990 and 2011 they identified ten articles that fit within these criteria, of which six were ITT analyses, six included only well-compensated cirrhotics (Child-Pugh Class A without liver dysfunction) and three were ITT analyses of well-compensated cirrhotics.
Analysis of the six ITT studies that included all cirrhotics (n = 1118) (Child-Pugh Class A through C) showed no significant difference in survival at 5 years (OR = 0.600, 95 % CI 0.291– 1.237 l; p=0.166) but ITT analysis of only well-compensated cirrhotics (Child- Pugh Class A) revealed that patients undergoing transplant had a significantly higher 5-year survival as compared to those with resection (OR=0.521, 95 % CI 0.298–0.911; p=0.022).
A more recent ITT retrospective analysis from Spain assessed long-term survival and tumor recurrence following resection or transplant for tumors <5 cm in 217 cirrhotics (Child-Pugh Class A, B and C) over the span of 16 years. Recurrence at 5 years was significantly higher in the resection group (71.6 % vs. 16 % p<0.001) but survival at 4 years was similar (60 % vs. 62 %) which is likely explained by the evolving role of adjuvant therapies to treat post-resection recurrence.
- Patients with anatomically resectable single tumors and no cirrhosis or Child-Pugh Class A cirrhosis with normal bilirubin, HVPG (<10 mmHg), albumin and INR can be offered resection (evidence quality moderate; strong recommendation).
- Patients with Milan criteria tumors in the setting of Child- Pugh Class A with low platelets and either low albumin or high bilirubin or Child-Pugh Class B and C cirrhosis, especially those with more than one tumor, should be offered liver transplantation over resection (evidence quality moderate; strong recommendation).
- Those with Milan criteria tumors and Child-Pugh Class A cirrhosis without liver dysfunction should be considered for transplantation over resection (evidence quality low; weak recommendation).
- No recommendation can be made in regard to transplanting tumors beyond Milan criteria (evidence quality low) except to follow regional review board criteria.
- Pre-transplant therapies such as embolic or thermal ablation are safe and by expert opinion considered to be effective in decreasing transplant waitlist dropout and bridging patients to transplant (evidence quality low, weak recommendation). These interventions should be considered for those waiting longer than 6 months (evi- dence quality low, moderate recommendation).
- Living donor liver transplantation is a safe and effective option for treatment of HCC that are within and exceed Milan criteria (evidence quality moderate, weak recommendation).
Minimally invasive surgery, a widely adopted tool for most domains of gastrointestinal surgery, has been relatively slow to evolve in the field of pancreatic surgery. The reasons include proximity to the great vessels, retroperitoneal location, need for advanced intracorporeal suturing skills and increased risk of complications associated with these procedures. With enormous development in surgical technology coupled with improved anatomical knowledge and refined skills, minimally invasive pancreatic surgery has grown out of its infancy and is an established specialty in hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery today. As a result, the initial scepticism and reluctance associated with minimally invasive pancreatic resections has decreased and many surgeons are attempting to enter this difficult terrain. Recent publications highlight potential advantages of minimally invasive pancreatic resection (MIPR) over open pancreatic resection (OPR). These include reduced pain, decreased blood loss and need for transfusion, an earlier return of bowel function, decreased wound infection rates and shorter intensive care unit and overall hospital stays. Though the number of minimally invasive pancreatic resections performed for benign and malignant diseases of the pancreas has increased in recent years, cost considerations and financial implications of these new approaches need to be well defined. Clear guidelines and standardization of surgical technique are paramount for the safe and steady expansion of this novel surgical approach.
Minimally Invasive Pancreaticoduodenectomy
Gagner and Pomp reported the first LPD in 1994. They felt that laparoscopy was not useful for such a major resection and reconstruction. However, their initial patients included those with chronic pancreatitis, where LPD is considered difficult to do even at present. With this background, we began doing LPD after sufficient experience had been gained in other major laparoscopic procedures such as colectomy, gastrectomy and choledochal cyst excision. During the initial phase, LPD was attempted in only periampullary tumours or small pancreatic head masses. With increasing experience, the indications for LPD were expanded to include carcinoma head of the pancreas and larger tumours.
Over the years, numerous technical modifications in terms of surgeon comfort, use of energy source, radicality of surgery, type of reconstruction and specimen extraction were made. These refinements resulted in better outcomes as was evident in the next publication in 2009 which included 75 patients. Oncologically, the resection status and lymph nodal yield were comparable with the open approach and would translate to equal survival outcomes. Recently, Asbun et al. compared their open PDs and LPDs and found that LPD had better perioperative outcomes in terms of blood loss and ICU and hospital stays.
In 2015, Palanivelu reported that the pathological radicality of LPD was comparable to that of the open approach when performed by experienced minimal access surgeons. And analysed yours long-term outcomes following LPD in 130 patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancers. This study, one of the largest published series so far, showed excellent short-term results and acceptable long-term survival. The pancreatic fistula rate was 8.5%, mean (SD) operating time was 310 (34) min, and mean blood loss was 110 (22) ml with a mean hospital stay of 8 (2.6) days. The resected margins were positive in 9.2% with an overall 5-year actuarial survival of 29.4% and a median survival of 33 months.
Published outcomes of LPD have shown that it is feasible and safe when done in high-volume institutions by expert surgeons. In a recent systematic review of LPD, Boggi et al. identified 25 articles with 746 patients who had LPD for both malignant and benign indications. The mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 464 min and 321 ml, respectively. Conversion to open surgery was required in 9% of patients. The average hospital stay was 14 days. The overall morbidity, mortality and pancreatic fistula rates were 41.2, 1.9 and 22.3%, respectively. The majority of surgeons did a pancreaticojejunostomy (84%), whereas a small number did pancre- aticogastrostomy (9.8%) or duct occlusion (6.8%). A slight majority did pylorus preservation (55%) instead of hemigastrectomy (45%). No major differences in outcomes were seen for laparoscopic, robotic, laparoscopic-assisted or hand-assisted methods.
Similarly, no significant differences were seen between high-volume (>30 cases) and low-volume centres other than longer operative times and higher estimated blood loss in the low-volume ones. The average number of lymph nodes recovered was 14.4 and the negative margin rate was 95.6%. Although the data were heterogeneous with a high likelihood for selection bias, the results for LPD appear to be at least comparable to those in patients undergoing open PD.
In general, LPD was associated with reduced blood loss and hospital stay; however, operative times tend to be longer. The longer operative times associated with LPD tend to reduce with increasing experience. In a series by Kim et al., the median operative time for LPD was 7.9 h and decreased with accumulating experience of the surgeon doing this procedure from 9.8 h for the first 33 cases to 6.6 h for the last 34 cases.
Operations on the gallbladder and bile ducts are among the surgical procedures most commonly performed by general surgeons. In most hospitals, cholecystectomy is the most frequently performed operation within the abdomen. Pancreatic surgery is less frequent , but because of the close relation between the biliary system and the pancreas, knowledge of pancreatic problems is equally essential to the surgeon. Acute and chronic pancreatitis and cancer of the pancreas are often encountered by surgeons, with apparently increasing frequency; their treatment remains difficult and perplexing. This review demonstrates the modern aspects of pancreatic surgery. Good study.
Acute pancreatitis is more of a range of diseases than it is a single pathologic entity. Its clinical manifestations range from mild, perhaps even subclinical, symptoms to a life-threatening or life-ending process. The classification of acute pancreatitis and its forms are discussed in fuller detail by Sarr and colleagues elsewhere in this issue. For the purposes of this discussion, the focus is on the operative interventions for acute pancreatitis and its attendant disorders. The most important thing to consider when contemplating operative management for acute pancreatitis is that we do not operate as much for the acute inflammatory process as for the complications that may arise from inflammation of the pancreas. In brieSurgical treatment of acute pancreatitisf, the complications are related to: necrosis of the parenchyma, infection of the pancreas or surrounding tissue, failure of pancreatic juice to safely find its way to the lumen of the alimentary tract, erosion into vascular or other structures, and a persistent systemic inflammatory state. The operations may be divided into three major categories: those designed to ameliorate the emergent problems associated with the ongoing inflammatory state, those designed to ameliorate chronic sequelae of an inflammatory event, and those designed to prevent a subsequent episode of acute pancreatitis. This article provides a review of the above.
Templo (do latim templum, “local sagrado”) é uma estrutura arquitetônica dedicada ao serviço religioso. O termo também pode ser usado em sentido figurado. Neste sentido, é o reflexo do mundo divino, a habitação de Deus sobre a terra, o lugar da Presença Real. É o resumo do macrocosmo e também a imagem do microcosmo: ‘o corpo é o templo do Espírito Santo’ (I, Coríntios, 6, 19).
Dos locais especiais, O corpo humano (morada da alma), a Cavidade Peritoneal e o Bloco Cirúrgico, se bem analisados, são muito semelhantes e merecem atitudes e comportamentos respeitáveis. O Templo, em todos os credos, induz à meditação, absoluto silêncio tentando ouvir o Ser Supremo. A cavidade peritoneal, espaço imaculado da homeostase, quando injuriada, reage gritando em dor, implorando uma precoce e efetiva ação terapêutica.
O Bloco Cirúrgico, abrigo momentâneo do indivíduo solitário, que mudo e quase morto de medo, recorre à prece implorando a troca do acidente, da complicação, da recorrência, da seqüela, da mutilação, da iatrogenia e do risco de óbito pela agressiva intervenção que lhe restaure a saúde, patrimônio magno de todo ser vivo.
O Bloco Cirúrgico clama por respeito ao paciente cirúrgico, antes mesmo de ser tomado por local banal, misturando condutas vulgares, atitudes menores, desvio de comportamento e propósitos secundários. Trabalhar no Bloco Cirúrgico significa buscar a perfeição técnica, revivendo os ensinamentos de William Stewart Halsted , precursor da arte de operar, dissecando para facilitar, pinçando e ligando um vaso sangüíneo, removendo tecido macerado, evitando corpos estranhos e reduzindo espaço vazio, numa síntese feita com a ansiedade e vontade da primeira e a necessidade e experiência da última.
Mas, se a cirurgia e o cirurgião vêm sofrendo grande evolução, técnica a primeira e científica o segundo, desde o início do século, a imagem que todo doente faz persiste numa simbiose entre mitos e verdades. A cirurgia significa enfrentar ambiente desconhecido chamado “sala de cirurgia” onde a fobia ganha espaço rumo ao infinito. O medo prepondera em muitos.
A confiança é um reconhecimento e um troféu que o cirurgião recebe dos pacientes e seus familiares. Tanto a CONFIANÇA quanto a SEGURANÇA têm que ser preservadas a qualquer custo. Não podem correr o risco de serem corroídas por palavras e atitudes de qualquer membro da equipe cirúrgica. Não foi tarefa fácil transformar, para a população, o ato cirúrgico numa atividade científica, indispensável, útil e por demais segura. Da conquista da cirurgia, como excelente arma terapêutica para a manutenção de um alto padrão de qualidade técnica, resta a responsabilidade dos cirurgiões, os herdeiros do suor e sangue, que se iniciou com o trabalho desenvolvido por Billroth, Lister, Halsted, Moyniham, Kocher e uma legião de figuras humanas dignas do maior respeito, admiração e gratidão universal.
No ato operatório os pacientes SÃO TODOS SEMELHANTES EM SUAS DIFERENÇAS, desde a afecção, ao prognóstico, ao caráter da cirurgia e especialmente sua relação com o ato operatório. Logo o cirurgião entra no bloco cirúrgico com esperança e não deve sair com dúvida. Nosso trabalho é de equipe, cada um contribui com uma parcela, maior ou menor, para a concretização do todo, do ato cirúrgico por completo, com muita dedicação e sabedoria. Toda tarefa, da limpeza do chão ao ato de operar, num crescendo, se faz em função de cada um e em benefício da maioria, o mais perfeito possível e de uma só vez, quase sempre sem oportunidade de repetição e previsão de término.
O trabalho do CIRURGIÃO é feito com carinho, muita dignidade, humildade e executado em função da alegria do resultado obtido aliado a dimensão ética do dever cumprido que transcende a sua existência. A vida do cirurgião se materializa no ato operatório e o bloco cirúrgico, palco do nosso trabalho não tolera e jamais permite atitudes menores, inferiores, ambas prejudiciais a todos os pacientes e a cada cirurgião. Como ambiente de trabalho de uma equipe diversificada, precisa manter, a todo custo, o controle de qualidade, por lidar com o que há de mais precioso na Terra: o ser humano.
Over the past decade, following the publication of several long-term outcome studies that showed a significant improvement in cardiovascular risk and mortality after bariatric surgery, the number of bariatric procedures being carried out annually in the UK has grown exponentially. Surgery remains the only way to produce significant, sustainable weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. Nevertheless, relatively few surgeons have developed an interest in this field. Most bariatric surgery is now performed in centres staffed by surgeons with a bariatric interest, usually as part of a multidisciplinary team.
The commonest weight loss procedures performed around the world at present are the gastric band, the gastric bypass and the sleeve gastrectomy. In very obese patients, an alternative operation is the duodenal switch, while the new ileal transposition procedure represents one of the few purely metabolic operations designed specifically for the treatment of type II diabetes. Older operations such as vertical banded gastroplasty and jejuno-ileal bypass are now obsolete, although patients who have undergone such procedures in the distant past may still present to hospital with complications. The main endoscopic option at present is insertion of a gastric balloon, with newer procedures like the endoscopic duodenojejunal barrier and gastric plication on the horizon. Implantable neuroregulatory devices (gastric ‘pacemakers’) represent a new direction for surgical weight control by harnessing neural feedback signals to help control eating.
It should be within the capability of any abdominal surgeon to manage the general complications of bariatric surgery, which include pulmonary atelectasis/pneumonia, intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic or staple-line leak with or without abscess formation, deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolus and superficial wound infections. Patients may be expected to present with malaise, pallor, features of sepsis or obvious wound problems. However, clinical features may be difficult to recognise owing to body habitus. Abdominal distension, tenderness and guarding may be impossible to determine clinically due to the patient’s obesity. Pallor is non-specific. Fever and leucocytosis may be absent. Wound collections may be very deep. These complications in a bariatric patient should be actively sought with appropriate investigations. In particular, it is vital for life-threatening complications such as bleeding, sepsis and bowel obstruction to be recognised promptly and treated appropriately. A persistent tachycardia may be the only sign heralding significant complications and should always be taken seriously. It is useful to classify complications as ‘early’, ‘medium’ and ‘late’ because, from the receiving clinician’s point of view, the differential diagnosis will differ accordingly.
The professions are the means by which the complex services needed by society are organized. A profession has been defined by the American College of Surgeons as: an occupation whose core element is work that is based upon the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning, or the practice of an art founded upon it, is used in the service of others. Its members are governed by codes of ethics and profess a commitment to competence, integrity and morality, altruism and to the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which, in turn, grants the profession a monopoly over the use of its knowledge base, the right to considerable autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Professions and their members are accountable to those served and to society.
1. What are the core elements of a profession? All professions are characterized by four core elements: (1) a monopoly over the use of specialized knowledge; (2) in return for that monopoly that we enjoy, relative autonomy in practice and the responsibility of self-regulation; (3) altruistic service to individuals and society; and (4) responsibility for maintaining and expanding professional knowledge and skills.
3.What is professionalism? Professionalism describes the cognitive, moral, and collegial attributes of a professional. Ultimately, it is all the reasons that your mother is proud to say that you are a doctor and a surgeon.
4. Why do physicians need a code of professional conduct? Trust is integral to the practice of surgery. The Code of Professional Conduct clarifies the relationship between the surgical profession and the society it serves. This is often referred to as a social contract. For patients the code of professional conduct crystallizes the commitment of the surgical community toward individual patients and their communities. Trust is built brick by brick.
5. What is the Code of Professional Conduct ? The Code of Professional Conduct takes the general principles of professionalism and applies them to surgical practice. The code is the foundation on which we earn our professional privileges and the trust of patients and the public. It is our job description. During the continuum of the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care surgeons have the responsibility to:
5.1 Serve as effective advocates for our patients’ needs.
5.2 Disclose therapeutic options including their risks and benefits.
5.3 Disclose and resolve any conflict of interest that might influence the decisions of care.
5.4 Be sensitive and respectful of patients, understanding their vulnerability during the perioperative period.
5.5 Fully disclose adverse events and medical errors.
5.6 Acknowledge patients’ psychological, social, cultural and spiritual needs.
5.7 Encompass within our surgical care the special needs of terminally ill patients.
5.8 Acknowledge and support the needs of patients’ families and
5.9 Respect the knowledge, dignity, and perspective of other healthcare professionals.
6. Why do surgeons need their own code of professionalism? A surgical procedure is an extreme experience. We impact our patients physiologically, psychologically, and socially. When patients submit themselves to a surgical experience, they must trust that the surgeon will put their welfare above all other considerations. The written code helps to reinforce these values.
7. What are the fundamental principles of the Code of Professional Conduct and the codes of other professional societies?
7.1 The primacy of patient welfare.
This means that the patient’s interests always come first. Altruism is central to this concept, and it is the surgeon’s altruism that fosters trust in the physician-patient relationship.
7.2 Patient autonomy.
Patients must understand and make their own informed decisions about their treatment. This is tricky. As physicians we must be honest with our patients so that they make educated decisions. At the same time, we must make sure that their decisions are consistent with ethical practices and do not lead to demands for inappropriate care.
7.3 Social justice.
As physicians we must advocate for our individual patients while at the same time promoting the health of the healthcare system as a whole. We must balance our patient’s needs (autonomy) and not misdirect scarce resources that benefit society (social justice).
O sistema portal é uma rede venosa de baixa pressão, com níveis fisiológicos <5 mmHg. Desta forma, o termo hipertensão portal (HP) designa uma síndrome clínica caracterizada pelo aumento mantido na pressão venosa em níveis acima dos fisiológicos. Ela é considerada clinicamente significante quando acima de 10 mmHg; neste nível existe o risco de surgimento de varizes esofagogástricas (VEG). Por sua vez, valores acima de 12 mmHg cursam com risco de rompimento dessas varizes, sua principal complicação.
O aumento do fluxo como fator preponderante inicial da HP é raro e representado por fístulas arterioportais congênitas, traumáticas ou neoplásicas. O aumento da resistência é a condição fisiopatológica inicial mais comum e pode ser classificada de acordo com o local de obstrução ao fluxo em: pré-hepática, intra-hepática e pós-hepática. A HP intra-hepática responde pela grande maioria dos casos e pode ser subdividida de acordo com o local de acometimento estrutural no parênquima hepático em: pré-sinusoidal (ex: esquistossomose hepatoesplênica – EHE), sinusoidal (ex: cirrose hepática) e pós-sinusoidal (ex: doença venoclusiva). Em nosso meio, a maioria dos casos é decorrente da EHE e das hepatopatias crônicas complicadas com cirrose.
O tratamento da HP depende da causa subjacente, da condição clínica e do momento em que é realizado. Pacientes com função hepática comprometida têm abordagem diversa daqueles com ela preservada, como os portadores de EHE. Além disso, o tratamento pode ser emergencial (durante episódio agudo de hemorragia) ou eletivo, como profilaxia pré-primária, primária ou secundária. Por essa diversidade de situações clínicas, não existe modalidade única de tratamento.
O objetivo da aula abaixo foi avaliar os avanços e as estratégias atuais empregadas no tratamento emergencial e eletivo da hemorragia digestiva varicosa em pacientes cirróticos e esquistossomóticos.
A avaliação e os cuidados de feridas pós-operatórias deve ser do domínio de todos os profissionais que atuam na clínica cirúrgica. O conhecimento a cerca dos processos relacionados a cicatrização tecidual é importante tanto nos cuidados como na prevenção de complicações, tais como: infecções e deiscência. Como tal, todos os profissionais médicos, sendo eles cirurgiões ou de outras especialidades, que participam do manejo clínico dos pacientes no período perioperatório devem apreciar a fisiologia da cicatrização de feridas e os princípios de tratamento de feridas pós-operatório. O objetivo deste artigo é atualizar os profissionais médicos de outras especialidades sobre os aspectos importantes do tratamento de feridas pós-operatório através de uma revisão da fisiologia da cicatrização de feridas, os métodos de limpeza e curativo, bem como um guia sobre complicações de feridas pós-operatórias mais prevalentes e como devem ser manejados nesta situação.
Estima-se que atualmente 90% das colecistectomias sejam realizadas pela técnica laparoscópica, percentual este atingido nos Estados Unidos da América no ano de 1992. Os motivos para tal preferência na escolha da técnica cirúrgica aplicada são claros: menor dor no pós-operatório, recuperação pós-cirúrgica mais rápida, menor número de dias de trabalho perdidos e menor tempo de permanência hospitalar. A colecistectomia laparoscópica foi claramente estabelecida como padrão-ouro para o tratamento cirúrgico da litíase biliar, no entanto 2 a 15% das colecistectomias vídeolaparoscópicas necessitam de conversão para cirurgia convencional, sendo as razões mais comuns a inabilidade para se identificar corretamente a anatomia, suspeita de lesão da árvore biliar e sangramento. A identificação dos fatores associados a um maior índice de conversão possibilita à equipe cirúrgica estimar o grau de dificuldade do procedimento, preparando melhor o paciente para o risco de conversão e permitindo a participação de um cirurgião mais experiente num procedimento de maior risco.
Relacionados ao Paciente: 1. Obesidade (IMC > 35), 2. Sexo Masculino, 3. Idade > 65 anos, 4. Diabetes Mellitus e 5. ASA > 2.
Relacionadas a Doença: 1. Colecistite Aguda, 2. Líquido Pericolecístico, 3. Pós – CPRE, 4. Síndrome de Mirizzi e 5. Edema da parede da vesícula > 5 mm.
Relacionadas a Cirurgia: 1. Hemorragia, 2. Aderências firmes, 3. Anatomia obscura, 4. Fístulas internas e 5. Cirurgia abdominal prévia.
Hepatic resection had an impressive growth over time. It has been widely performed for the treatment of various liver diseases, such as malignant tumors, benign tumors, calculi in the intrahepatic ducts, hydatid disease, and abscesses. Management of hepatic resection is challenging. Despite technical advances and high experience of liver resection of specialized centers, it is still burdened by relatively high rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Especially, complex resections are being increasingly performed in high risk and older patient population. Operation on the liver is especially challenging because of its unique anatomic architecture and because of its vital functions. Common post-hepatectomy complications include venous catheter-related infection, pleural effusion, incisional infection, pulmonary atelectasis or infection, ascites, subphrenic infection, urinary tract infection, intraperitoneal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, biliary tract hemorrhage, coagulation disorders, bile leakage, and liver failure. These problems are closely related to surgical manipulations, anesthesia, preoperative evaluation and preparation, and postoperative observation and management. The safety profile of hepatectomy probably can be improved if the surgeons and medical staff involved have comprehensive knowledge of the expected complications and expertise in their management.
The era of hepatic surgery began with a left lateral hepatic lobectomy performed successfully by Langenbuch in Germany in 1887. Since then, hepatectomy has been widely performed for the treatment of various liver diseases, such as malignant tumors, benign tumors, calculi in the intrahepatic ducts, hydatid disease, and abscesses. Operation on the liver is especially challenging because of its unique anatomic architecture and because of its vital functions. Despite technical advances and high experience of liver resection of specialized centers, it is still burdened by relatively high rates of postoperative morbidity (4.09%-47.7%) and mortality (0.24%-9.7%). This review article focuses on the major postoperative issues after hepatic resection and presents the current management.
The pancreatic pseudocyst is a collection of pancreatic secretions contained within a fibrous sac comprised of chronic inflammatory cells and fibroblasts in and adjacent to the pancreas contained by surrounding structures. Why a fibrous sac filled with pancreatic fluid is the source of so much interest, speculation, and emotion amongst surgeons and gastroenterologists is indeed hard to understand. Do we debate so vigorously about bilomas, urinomas, or other abdominal collections of visceral secretions? Perhaps it is because the pancreatic pseudocyst represents a sleeping tiger, which though frequently harmless, still can rise up unexpectedly and attack with its enzymatic claws into adjacent visceral and vascular structures and cause lifethreatening complications.
Another part of the debate and puzzlement about pancreatic pseudocysts is related to confusion about pancreatic pseudocyst definition and nomenclature. The Atlanta classification, developed in 1992, was a pioneering effort in describing and defining morphologic entities in acute pancreatitis. Since then, a working group has been revising this system to incorporate more modern experience into the terminology. In the latest version of this system, pancreatitis is divided into acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IEP) and necrotizing pancreatitis (NP), based on the presence of pancreatic tissue necrosis. The fluid collections associated with these two “types” of pancreatitis are also differentiated. Early (<4 weeks into the disease course) peripancreatic fluid collections in IEP are referred to as acute peripancreatic fluid collections (APFC), whereas in NP, they are referred to as postnecrotic peripancreatic fluid collections (PNPFC). Late (>4 weeks) fluid collections in IEP are called pancreatic pseudocysts, and in NP, they are called walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN).
Acute pancreatitis represents a broad spectrum of disease. Although the disease course may smolder, typically an initial inciting event results in organ injury, which sets into play the evolving clinical course. The early phase of disease is marked by the inflammatory mediators from damaged pancreatic tissue, resulting in variable degrees of systemic inflammatory response. The later phase is determined by the morphology of organ injury, specifically with regard to tissue ischemia and necrosis. The outcome of this later phase is often impacted by local or systemic infection. Peripancreatic fluid collections can occur in both the early and the late phases of disease. They presumably occur from injury to or ischemia of the main pancreatic duct or a side branch duct, although some, particularly early on, may be the result of third-space edema fluid. Peripancreatic fluid collections represent a heterogeneous entity.
The first postgastrectomy syndrome was noted not long after the first gastrectomy was performed: Billroth reported a case of epigastric pain associated with bilious vomiting as a sequel of gastric surgery in 1885. Several classic treatises exist on the subject; we cannot improve on them and merely provide a few references for the interested reader.
However, the indications for gastric resection have changed dramatically over the past 4 decades, and the overall incidence of gastric resection has decreased. The most marked reduction in the frequency of gastric resection has occurred among patients with peptic ulcer disease. For example, in Olmstead County, Minnesota, the incidence of elective operations on previously unoperated patients declined 8-fold during the 30-year study period between 1956 and 1985 and undoubtedly has declined even further since.
One population-based study concluded that elective surgery for ulcer disease had “virtually disappeared by 1992–1996.” Whereas emergency operations for bleeding and perforation are still encountered, acid-reducing procedures are being performed less frequently in these situations in favor of a damage control approach. Even for gastric cancer, resection rates decreased approximately 20% from 1988 to 2000 in the United States.
An estimated 21,000 new cases of stomach cancer occurred in the United States in 2010, so that the number of cases of gastric resection for cancer is probably less than 15,000 per year in the United States. The virtual disappearance of elective surgery for peptic ulcer has also changed the demographic profile of the postgastrectomy patient: patients who have gastric cancer tend to be older and there is only a slight male preponderance.
These significant changes in the gastric surgery population make it worthwhile to revisit postgastrectomy syndromes. The frequency with which postgastrectomy symptoms/syndromes are found can depend on how hard they are looked for. Loffeld, in a survey of 124 postgastrectomy patients, most of whom had undergone surgery more than 15 years earlier, found that 75% suffered from upper abdominal symptoms, and 1 or more symptoms that indicate dumping were found in 70% of patients who had undergone Billroth-II (B-II) reconstruction.
However, the lack of age-matched and sex-matched controls in this study may have overstated the frequency of symptoms caused by the surgical procedure. Mine and colleagues conducted a large survey of 1153 patients after gastrectomy for cancer and found that 67% reported early dumping and 38% late dumping. By contrast, Pedrazzani and colleagues surveyed 195 patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy and B-II reconstruction for gastric adenocarcinoma for up to 5 years postoperatively, and concluded that “the incidence of late complications was low and the majority of them recovered within one year after surgery.”
This article focuses on the small proportion of patients with severe, debilitating symptoms; these symptoms can challenge the acumen of the surgeon who is providing the patient’s long-term follow-up and care.
Symptomatic hemorrhoids require a number of therapeutic interventions each of which has its own complications. Office-based therapy such as rubber band ligation carries the risk of pain and bleeding, which are self-limited, but also carries the risk of rare complications such as sepsis, which may be life threatening. Operative treatment of hemorrhoids includes conventional hemorrhoidectomy, stapled hemorrhoidectomy, and the use of energy devices. Complications of pain and bleeding are common but self-limited. Late complications such as stenosis and fecal incontinence are rare. Recurrent disease is related to the initial grade and therapeutic approach. Treatment of recurrent hemorrhoids should be individualized based on previous treatments and the grade of disease. Anesthetic complications, especially urinary retention, are common and related to the anesthetic technique. Practitioners should council their patients as to the risks of the various approaches to treating symptomatic hemorrhoids.
The morbid obesity epidemic continues to spread throughout industrialized nations. It is a condition with a heterogeneous etiology, including genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Prevention methods have currently been unable to halt the further spread of this disease. Obesity has been linked to increased healthcare costs, common physiologic derangements, reduced quality of life, and increased overall mortality. More than one third of adults and almost 17% of children in the United States are obese.
Medical therapy that can cause sustained significant weight loss may be years away. Bariatric surgery, when combined with a multidisciplinary team, continues to be the only proven method to achieve sustained weight loss in most patients. Bariatric procedures modify gastrointestinal anatomy and, in some cases, enteric hormone release to reduce caloric intake, reduce absorption, and alter metabolism to achieve weight loss. Currently, the three most common bariatric operations in the United States are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric band, and the vertical sleeve gastrectomy.
The creation of a stoma is a technical exercise. Like most undertakings, if done correctly, the stoma will usually function well with minimal complications for the remainder of the ostomate’s life. Conversely, if created poorly, stoma complications are common and can lead to years of misery. Intestinal stomas are in fact enterocutaneous anastomoses and all the principles that apply to creation of any anastomosis (i.e., using healthy intestine, avoiding ischemia and undue tension) are important in stoma creation.
Colon surgery represents a high number of patients treated at a department of gastrointestinal surgery and is not limited to colon cancer. It includes other non-neoplastic pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease, diverticular disease or colonic volvulus. As with any major procedure, colon surgery patients may present serious or even fatal complications. The incidence of postoperative complications from colon surgery has been estimated at between 10% and 30% according to selected series. Preventive measures against surgical complications include selection of an appropriate procedure for the patient as well as good preoperative care, appropriate surgical technique and good postoperative management. When diagnosis has been established, risks for patient should be assessed according to patient’s health conditions and type of surgery accomplished. When the patient meets the surgical requirements, an appropriate course of preoperative care should be carried out including colon wash antibiotics and antithrombotic prophylaxis. Postoperative period will be equivalent to any major abdominal surgery. Typically, it was considered appropriate to wait a few days before initiating feeding in order to protect anastomosis; however, some authors agree that an early oral diet hours after intervention is not associated with a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence and other complications.
Obesity is a common disease affecting adults and children. The incidence of obesity in worldwide is increasing. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a relatively new and effective procedure for weight loss. Owing to an increase in the number of bariatric surgical procedures, general surgeons should have an understanding of the complications associated with LSG and an approach for dealing with them. Early postoperative complications following LSG that need to be identified urgently include bleeding, staple line leak and development of an abscess. Delayed complications include strictures, nutritional deficiencies and gastresophageal reflux disease. We discuss the principles involved in the management of each complication.
The risk of complications and mortality in bariatric surgery is associated with certain factors that are common to other patients and procedures, including age above 65 years, the presence of associated diseases (cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, etc.), prior abdominal surgery, and the experience of the surgeon and the institution, especially concerning the ability to make an early diagnosis and address complications. The surgical complications observed in the early postoperative period following surgeries performed to treat severe obesity are similar to those associated with other major surgeries of the gastrointestinal tract. However, given the more frequent occurrence of medical comorbidities (such as diabetes, arterial hypertension, and sleep apnea), as well as the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of the complications (due to limitations of the clinical abdominal workup and imaging methods, such as ultrasonography and computed tomography, particularly in highly obese patients with body mass indices >50 kg/m²), these patients require special attention in the early post operative follow-up. Pulmonary thromboembolism, a complication associated with bariatric surgery, also requires greater attention from the medical team given the high mortality rate associated with this condition. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these complications are directly associated with a greater probability of control.
Considera-se que a cirurgia hepática começou após o advento da anestesia e da anti-sepsia. No entanto, muito antes disso, diversos autores já relatavam suas experiências com ressecções do fígado. As primeiras descrições de “cirurgias hepáticas” consistiam no relato de avulsões parciais ou totais de porções do fígado após lesões traumáticas do abdome. O relato de Elliot (1897) exemplifica muito dos temores dos cirurgiões da época: “O fígado (…) é tão friável, tão cheio de vasos e tão evidentemente impossível de ser suturado que parece ser improvável o manejo bem sucedido de grandes lesões de seu parênquima”.
Extent of lymph node dissection has been an area of controversy in gastric adenocarcinoma for many years. Some surgeons believe that cancer metastasizes through a stepwise progression, and an extensive lymphadenectomy is necessary to improve survival and/or cure the patient. Other physicians argue that extensive ly-mphadenectomies only add pe-rioperative morbidity and mor-tality and do not improve survival. Asian countries have been performing extended lymphadenectomies routinely for many years with promising survival data, although Western countries have not been able to reproduce those results. Much of the controversy surrounding lymphadenectomies started in the 1980s when Japanese studies reported superior survival rates matched stage for stage, compared to the United States. This was theorized to be secondary to the more extensive lymphadenectomy performed in Japan compared to the United States.
A United Kingdom study randomized 400 patients to either a D1 or a D2 lymph node dissection. Those patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the stomach underwent a distal pancreaticosplenectomy to obtain retropancreatic and splenic hilar nodes. While the 5-year survival rates were not statistically significant between the two groups, on multivariate analyses it was noted that those patients in the D2 group that did not undergo the distal pancreaticosplenectomy had an increased survival compared with the D1 group. A trial in the Netherlands randomized 380 gastric cancer patients to a D1 lymphadenectomy and 331 patients to a D2 lymphadenectomy. Similar to the United Kingdom study, there was not a significant difference in survival between the two groups, even when followed out to 11 years. There was a significant increase in postoperative complications in the D2 group compared with the D1 group (43 % vs. 25 %, respectively) as well as mortality (10 % vs. 4 %, respectively).
The data from these two studies suggest that a pancreaticosplenectomy performed to harvest lymph nodes seems to only add morbidity and mortality while not improving survival. One concern raised about the prior two studies was the variation in surgical technique and lack of standardization of surgeon experience. A Taiwanese study accounted for this by performing the study at a single institution with three surgeons, each of whom had completed at least 25 D3 lymph node dissections prior to the study. Patients with gastric cancer were randomized to a D1 lymph node dissection (defined as resection of perigastric lymph nodes along the lesser and greater curves of the stomach) or a D3 lymph node dissection (defined as resection of additional lymph nodes surrounding the splenic, common hepatic, left gastric arteries, nodes in the hepatoduodenal ligament, and retropancreatic lymph nodes). There was an overall 5-year survival benefit with the D3 group of 60 % compared with the D1 group of 54 %. A Japanese study evaluated a more aggressive lymph node dissection and randomized patients to a D2 dissection or a para-aortic lymph node dissection (PAND). There was no significant difference in 5-year survival between the two groups with a trend toward an increase in complications in the PAND group. Multiple studies have shown that the number of positive lymph nodes is a significant predictor of survival. Current AJCC guidelines stipulate that at least 15 lymph nodes are needed for pathologic examination to obtain adequate staging.
Laparoscopic techniques have become an integral part of surgical practice over the past several decades. For gastric cancer, multiple retrospective studies have reported the advantages of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) over open gastrectomy (OG). A recent meta-analysis of 15 nonrandomized comparative studies has also shown that although LG had a longer operative time than OG, it was associated with lower intraoperative blood loss, overall complication rate, fewer wound-related complications, quicker recovery of gastrointestinal motility with shorter time to first flatus and oral intake, and shorter hospital stay. A randomized prospective trial comparing laparoscopic assisted with open subtotal gastrectomy reported that LG had a significantly lower blood loss (229 ± 144 ml versus 391 ± 136 ml; P< 0.001), shorter time to resumption of oral intake (5.1 ± 0.5 days versus 7.4 ± 2 days; P< 0.001), and earlier discharge from hospital (10.3 ± 3.6 days versus 14.5 ± 4.6 days; P< 0.001).
Colonoscopy is a commonly performed procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of conditions and symptoms and for the screening and surveillance of colorectal neoplasia. Although up to 33% of patients report at least one minor, transient GI symptom after colonoscopy, serious complications are uncommon. In a 2008 systematic review of 12 studies totaling 57,742 colonoscopies performed for average risk screening, the pooled overall serious adverse event rate was 2.8 per 1000 procedures. The risk of some complications may be higher if the colonoscopy is performed for an indication other than screening. The colorectal cancer miss rate of colonoscopy has been reported to be as high as 6% and the miss rate for adenomas larger than 1 cm is 12% to 17%. Although missed lesions are considered a poor outcome of colonoscopy, they are not a complication of the procedure per se and will not be discussed further in this document. Over 85% of the serious colonoscopy complications are reported in patients undergoing colonoscopy with polypectomy. An analysis of Canadian administrative data, including over 97,000 colonoscopies, found that polypectomy was associated with a 7-fold increase in the risk of bleeding or perforation. However, complication data are often not stratiﬁed by whether or not polypectomy was performed. Therefore, complications of polypectomy are discussed with those of diagnostic colonoscopy. A discussion of the diagnosis and management of all complications of colonoscopy is beyond the scope of this document, although general principles are reviewed.
With the introduction of laparoscopic colectomy nearly 20 years ago, a relatively slow adoption of laparoscopic colorectal surgery into surgical practice has taken place. It is estimated that 10% to 25% of all colorectal resections are performed utilizing laparoscopy. The persistent steep learning curve, the lack of high-volume colorectal surgery by general surgeons (who perform the bulk of colonic resection in the United States), and the modest advantages reported are but a few of the reasons that the percentage of laparoscopic colorectal procedures has not dramatically risen. With the publication of several large, prospective randomized trials for colon cancer, along with the interest in single-port surgery and natural orifice surgery, there appears to be a renewed interest in minimally invasive procedures for the colon and rectum. This chapter will provide an overview of these issues and offer a current assessment of the common diseases to which minimally invasive techniques have been applied.
Numerous previous studies have evaluated the learning curve involved in laparoscopic colectomy. It is estimated by conventional laparoscopic techniques that the learning curve for laparoscopic colectomy is at least 20 cases but more likely 50 cases. The need to work in multiple quadrants of the abdomen, the need for a skilled laparoscopic assistant, and the lack of yearly volume has kept the learning curve relatively steep. The surgeon may also need to work in reverse angles to the camera. All of these combined add to the complexity of the procedure and result in the need to perform a number of cases before the surgeon and surgical team become proficient. More recent publications have suggested the learning curve is more than 20 cases. In a prospective randomized study of colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom, the CLASICC trial, surgeons had to perform at least 20 laparoscopic resections before they were allowed to enter the study. The study began in July 1996 and was completed in July 2002. Despite the surgeons’ prior experience, the rate of conversion dropped from 38% to 16% over the course of the study, suggesting that a minimum of 20 cases may not be enough to overcome the learning curve. In the COLOR trial from Europe, another prospective randomized study for colon cancer that required a prerequisite experience in laparoscopic colon resection before surgeons could enter patients in the study, surgeon and hospital volume were directly related to a number of operative and postoperative outcomes. The median operative time for high-volume hospitals (>10 cases/year) was 188 minutes, compared to 241 minutes for low-volume hospitals (<5 cases/year); likewise, conversion rates were 9% versus 24% for the two groups. High-volume groups also had more lymph nodes in the resected specimens, fewer complications, and shortened hospital stays. These two relatively recent multicenter studies suggest that the learning curve is clearly greater than 20 cases and that surgeons need to perform a minimum yearly number of procedures to maintain their skills.
There may not be another area in recent surgical history that has been more heavily scrutinized than laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The plethora of accumulated data allows a careful assessment of all outcome measures for nearly every colorectal disease and procedure. In comparison to conventional colorectal surgery, the benefits of laparoscopy for colorectal procedures compared to open techniques include a reduction in postoperative ileus, postoperative pain, and a concomitant reduction in the need for analgesics; an earlier tolerance of diet; a shortened hospital stay; a quicker resumption of normal activities; improved cosmesis; and possibly preservation of immune function. This is offset by a prolongation in operative time, the cost of laparoscopic equipment, and the learning curve for these technically challenging procedures. When reporting the outcomes of laparoscopic colectomy, a natural selection bias applies when comparing conventional and laparoscopic cases. The most complex cases are generally not suitable for a laparoscopic approach and therefore are performed via an open approach. Also, in many series the results of the successfully completed laparoscopic cases are compared to conventional cases, and the cases converted from a laparoscopic to a conventional procedure may be analyzed separately. Few studies, with the exception of the larger prospective randomized studies, leave the converted cases in the laparoscopic group as part of the “intention to treat” laparoscopic group. This clearly introduces selection bias.
Although the results of prospective randomized trials are available for almost every disease process requiring colorectal resection, the majority of studies of laparoscopic colectomy are retrospective case-control series or noncomparative reports. The conclusions regarding patient outcomes must therefore come from the repetitiveness of the results rather than the superiority of the study design. For any one study, the evidence may be weak; but collectively, because of the reproducibility of results by a large number of institutions, even with different operative techniques and postoperative management parameters, the preponderance of evidence favors a minimally invasive approach with respect to postoperative outcomes.
Nearly all the comparative studies provide information regarding operative times. The definition of the operative time may vary with each series, and there may be different groups of surgeons performing the laparoscopic and conventional procedures. With the exception of a few reports, nearly all studies demonstrated a prolonged operative time associated with laparoscopic procedures. In prospective randomized trials, the procedure was roughly 40 to 60 minutes longer in the laparoscopic groups. As the surgeon and team gain experience with laparoscopic colectomy, the operating times do reliably fall, but rarely do they return to the comparable time for a conventional approach.
Return of Bowel Activity and Resumption of Diet
Reduction in postoperative ileus is one of the proposed major advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Nearly all of the retrospective and prospective studies comparing open and laparoscopic colectomy have shown a statistically significant reduction in the time to passage of flatus and stool. Most series demonstrate a 1- to 2-day advantage for the laparoscopic group. Whether the reduction of ileus relates to less bowel manipulation or less intestinal exposure to air during minimally invasive surgery remains unknown. With the reduction in postoperative ileus, the tolerance by the patient of both liquids and solid foods is quicker following laparoscopic resection. The time to resumption of diet varies from 2 days to 7 days, but in the majority of comparative studies, this is still 1 to 2 days sooner than in patients undergoing conventional surgery. Again, the physician and patient were not blinded in nearly all studies, which may have altered patient expectations. However, the overwhelming reproducible data reported in both retrospective and prospective studies of laparoscopic procedures does likely favor a reduction of postoperative ileus and tolerance of liquid and solid diets.
To measure postoperative pain, a variety of assessments have been performed to demonstrate a significant reduction in pain following minimally invasive surgery; some studies utilize an analog pain scale, and others measure narcotic requirements. Physician bias and psychologic conditioning of patients may interfere with the evaluation of postoperative pain. There are also cultural variations in the response to pain. Three of the early prospective randomized trials have evaluated pain postoperatively, and all three have found a reduction in narcotic requirements in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. In the COST study, the need both for intravenous and oral analgesics was less in patients undergoing successfully completed laparoscopic resections. Numerous other nonrandomized studies have shown a reduction in postoperative pain and narcotic usage.
Length of Stay
The quicker resolution of ileus, earlier resumption of diet, and reduced postoperative pain has resulted in a shortened length of stay for patients after laparoscopic resection when compared to traditional procedures. Recovery after conventional surgery has also been shortened, but in the absence of minimally invasive techniques, it would seem unlikely that the length of stay could be further reduced. In nearly all comparative studies, the length of hospitalization was 1 to 6 days less for the laparoscopic group. Although psychological conditioning of the patient cannot be helped and likely has a desirable effect, the benefits of minimally invasive procedures on the overall length of stay cannot be discounted. The benefit, however, is more likely a 1 to 2 day advantage only. The more recent introduction of clinical pathways, both in conventional and laparoscopic surgery, has also narrowed the gap but appears to be more reliable in patients undergoing a minimally invasive approach.
One of the disadvantages of laparoscopy is the higher cost related to longer operative times and increased expenditures in disposable equipment. Whether the total cost of the hospitalization (operative and hospital costs) is higher following laparoscopic colectomy is debatable. A case-control study from the Mayo Clinic looked at total costs following laparoscopic and open ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease (CD). In this study, 66 patients underwent laparoscopic or conventional ileocolic resection and were well matched. Patients in the laparoscopic group had less postoperative pain, tolerated a regular diet 1 to 2 days sooner, and had a shorter length of stay (4 vs. 7 days). In the cost analysis, despite higher operative costs, the overall mean cost was $3273 less in the laparoscopic group. The procedures were performed by different groups of surgeons at the institution, and although the surgeons may have introduced biases, this study was undertaken during the current era of cost containment, in which all physicians are encouraged to reduce hospital stays. The results are similar for elective sigmoid diverticular resection with a mean cost savings of $700 to $800. Clearly, if operative times and equipment expenditure are minimized, the overall cost of a laparoscopic resection should not exceed a conventional approach.
O aumento da prevalência de doença diverticular fez o seu adequado manuseio mais um assunto de debate constante.
Especialmente para os casos de diverticulite, progresso considerável tem sido feito em termos de diagnóstico e tratamento. Diagnóstico apropriado em TC e técnicas intervencionistas são agora amplamente disponíveis, bem como agentes antimicrobianos eficazes. Finalmente, como a ressecção cirúrgica do cólon envolvido é a única maneira de erradicar definitivamente essa condição, a colectomia eletiva laparoscópica surgiu como uma opção segura e interessante entre as opções de tratamento. Embora tenha sido recentemente contestada sobre a sua progressão, a história natural da diverticulite é assumida como sendo a de recorrência ao longo do tempo, pelo menos, em um terço dos pacientes. O medo das complicações desta doença benigna e prevalente tem motivado sociedades médicas e cirúrgicas para produzir orientações e consensos sobre o assunto. A mortalidade geralmente vem de sepse recorrente e/ou operações de emergência para casos mais complicados. Como resultado, o procedimento cirúrgico mais realizado, a sigmoidectomia eletiva, é normalmente indicada para todos os casos complicados e muitos dos não-complicados. A abordagem laparoscópica para a colectomia esquerda tem evoluído e condições seguras são oferecidas aos pacientes, quando realizado por cirurgiões experientes em laparoscopia.
Cystic disorders of the bile ducts, although rare, are well-defined malformations of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary tree. These lesions are commonly referred to as choledochal cysts,which is a misnomer, as these cysts often extend beyond the common bile duct (choledochus).
Cystic disorders of the bile ducts account for approximately 1% of all benign biliary disease. Also, biliary cysts are four times more common in females than males. The majority of patients (60%) with bile duct cysts are diagnosed in the first decade of life, and approxi-mately 20% are diagnosed in adulthood.
Cystic dilatation of the bile ducts occurs in various shapes—fusi-form, cystic, saccular, and so on—and in different locations through-out the biliary tree. The most commonly used classification is the Todani modification of the Alonso-Lej classification.
The exact etiology of biliary cysts is unknown.
The initial clinical presentation varies significantly between children and adults. In children, the most common symptoms are intermittent abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, mild jaundice, and an abdom-inal mass. The classical triad of abdominal pain, jaundice, and a pal-pable abdominal mass associated with choledochal cyst is observed in only 10% to 15% of children, and it is rarely seen in adults. Symp-toms in adults often mimic those seen in patients with biliary tract disease or pancre-atitis.
The definitive treatment of bile duct cysts usually includes surgical excision of the abnormal extrahepatic bile duct with biliary-enteric reconstruction. This approach relieves biliary obstruction, prevent-ing future episodes of cholangitis, stone formation, or biliary cirrho-sis and thus interrupting the inflammatory liver injury cycle. It also stops pancreatic juice reflux, and more importantly, it removes tissue at risk of malignant transformation.
Cancer of the rectum is the fifth most common form of cancer in adults worldwide. In 2012, an estimated 40,300 new rectal cancers will be diagnosed in the US with a median age 69 years. Five-year survival rates for rectal cancer are high for early stage disease (90% for Stage I disease) but drop significantly with worsening stage (7% for metastatic Stage IV disease). Recently, advances in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy have decreased the rate of local recurrence and improved long-term survival for some patients. Although the treatment for rectal cancer has become increasingly multimodal, surgical excision of the primary tumor remains essential for eradication of disease.
For a long time there has been a debate about the best surgical approach to early stage rectal cancer, whether treatment should involve radical excision (excision of the rectum) or local excision (tumor alone). Proponents of radical surgery argue that excision of the rectum with its surrounding lymphatic drainage offers the best chance for cure. On the other hand, advocates of local excision feel that a less-aggressive approach can avoid the potential ramifications of major pelvic surgery such as sepsis, poor anorectal function, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty with urination and can eliminate the potential need for a permanent stoma. Although the debate has gone back and forth on the adequacy of local excision, there is a growing body of scientific data that suggests that local excision can be sufficient in patients with early rectal cancer of the mid and distal rectum with good histologic features and preoperative imaging (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endorectal ultrasound) that shows no evidence of lymph node involvement.
Traditionally, transanal excision has been performed with the conventional technique using traditional equipment. Although this conventional technique can give surgeons operative access to most distal rectal lesions, it can be difficult to conduct on mid-rectal tumors or in large patients with a deep buttock cleft. The technical difficulties experienced under such circumstances can lead to poor visualization, inadequate margins, or specimen fragmentation. In response to the technical limitations of conventional transanal excision, in the 1980s Professor Gehard Buess from Tubingen, Germany, began to develop the technique of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM).
In collaboration with the Richard Wolf Company in Germany, Dr Buess developed the specialized instruments necessary to perform endoscopic surgery transanally. TEM was introduced into clinical practice in 1983, and was gradually implemented in several European countries and eventually introduced in North America and Asia. The last decade has witnessed international growth in the application of TEM yielding a significant amount of scientific data to support its clinical merits and advantages and also shedding some light on its limitations.
É o tipo de câncer mais associada a quem faz uso de bebidas alcoólicas e é adepto do tabagismo. Mas pode ocorrer também em quem tem refluxo acido do estômago para o esôfago (hérnia hiato e/ou doença do refluxo gastro esofágico). Como todo câncer, seu diagnóstico é tardio, pois não causa dor nem incomodo nas suas fases mais iniciais, e por isso, pedimos aos pacientes, que façam o exame de controle regularmente (endoscopia digestiva alta). O tratamento é um a combinação de radioterapia, quimioterapia e cirurgia, mas que vai ter variações conforme localização no esôfago (medindo entre 26 e 30 centímetros) e o estagio da doença. O esôfago é um tubo musculomembranoso, longo e delgado, que comunica a garganta ao estômago. Ele permite a passagem do alimento ou líquido ingerido até o interior do sistema digestivo, através de contrações musculares. O câncer de esôfago mais freqüente é o carcinoma epidermóide escamoso, responsável por 96% dos casos. Outro tipo de câncer de esôfago, o adenocarcinoma, vem tendo um aumento significativo principalmente em indivíduos com esôfago de Barrett, quando há crescimento anormal de células do tipo colunar para dentro do esôfago.
O câncer de esôfago apresenta uma alta taxa de incidência em países como a China, Japão, Cingapura e Porto Rico. No Brasil, consta entre os dez mais incidentes, segundo dados obtidos dos Registros de Base Populacional existentes, e em 2000 foi o sexto tipo mais mortal, com 5.307 óbitos. De acordo com a Estimativa de Incidência de Câncer no Brasil para 2006, devem ocorrer cerca de 10.580 casos novos deste câncer (7.970 entre os homens e 2.610 entre as mulheres) este ano.
Fatores de Risco/Prevenção
O câncer de esôfago está associado ao alto consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e de produtos derivados do tabaco (tabagismo). Outras condições que podem ser predisponentes para a maior incidência deste tumor são a tilose (espessamento nas palmas das mãos e na planta dos pés), a acalasia, o esôfago de Barrett, lesões cáusticas no esôfago, Síndrome de Plummer-Vinson (deficiência de ferro), agentes infecciosos (papiloma vírus – HPV) e história pessoal de câncer de cabeça e pescoço ou pulmão. Para prevenir o câncer de esôfago é importante adotar uma dieta rica em frutas e legumes, evitar o consumo freqüente de bebidas quentes, alimentos defumados, bebidas alcoólicas e produtos derivados do tabaco. A detecção precoce do câncer de esôfago torna-se muito difícil, pois essa doença não apresenta sintomas específicos. Indivíduos que sofrem de acalasia, tilose, refluxo gastro-esofageano, síndrome de Plummer-Vinson e esôfago de Barrett possuem mais chances de desenvolver o tumor, e por isso devem procurar o médico regularmente para a realização de exames.
O câncer de esôfago na sua fase inicial não apresenta sintomas. Porém, alguns sintomas são característicos como a dificuldade ou dor ao engolir, dor retroesternal, dor torácica, sensação de obstrução à passagem do alimento, náuseas, vômitos e perda do apetite. Na maioria das vezes, a dificuldade de engolir (disfagia) já demonstra a doença em estado avançado. A disfagia progride geralmente de alimentos sólidos até alimentos pastosos e líquidos. A perda de peso pode chegar até 10% do peso corporal.
O diagnóstico é feito através da endoscopia digestiva, de estudos citológicos e de métodos com colorações especiais (azul de toluidina e lugol) para que seja possível se fazer o diagnóstico precoce, fazendo com que as chances de cura atinjam 98%. Na presença de disfagia para alimentos sólidos é necessária a realização de um estudo radiológico contrastado, e também de uma endoscopia com biópsia ou citologia para confirmação. A extensão da doença é muito importante em função do prognóstico, já que esta tem uma agressividade biológica devido ao fato do esôfago não possuir serosa e, com isto, haver infiltração local das estruturas adjacentes, disseminação linfática, cau-sando metástases hematogênicas com grande freqüência.
O paciente pode receber como formas de tratamento a cirurgia, radioterapia, quimioterapia ou a combinação destes três tipos. Para os tumores iniciais pode ser indicada a ressecção endoscópica, no entanto este tipo de tratamento é bastante raro. Na maioria dos casos, a cirurgia é o tratamento utilizado. Dependendo da extensão da doença, o tratamento pode passar a ser unicamente paliativo, através de quimioterapia ou radioterapia. Nos casos de cuidados paliativos, também dispõe-se de dilatações com endoscopia, colocação de próteses auto-expansivas, assim como uso da braquiterapia.
Os pólipos colorretais são estruturas que se projetam na superfície da camada mucosa do intestino grosso, podendo ser neoplásicos ou não. Foi Morson, em 1976, quem melhor estabeleceu uma classificação para os diversos tipos de pólipos e a importância da progressão adenoma-câncer. Os pólipos foram divididos em: pólipos neoplásicos, caracterizados pelos adenomas e os carcinomas, e os pólipos não-neoplásicos, que incluem os tipos epiteliais hamartomatosos, inflamatórios, hiperplásicos ou metaplásicos. Os pólipos adenomatosos, que correspondem a cerca de 70% de todos os pólipos, são conhecidamente lesões pré-malignas que antecedem, em 10 a 15 anos, o câncer colorretal. Por conta dessa progressão lenta, a detecção de lesões pré-neoplásicas no intestino grosso é relevante na prevenção do surgimento e complicações do câncer colorretal. Os pólipos podem ser ressecados (polipectomia) antes da sua malignização, diminuindo sobremaneira a taxa de morbimortalidade do câncer colorretal.
A colonoscopia é o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico do câncer colorretal e para a detecção e ressecção endoscópica das lesões precursoras. A realização de polipectomias e biópsias permite, através da histopatologia, avaliar o tipo histológico, o grau de displasia e as margens de ressecção a fim de quantificar seu potencial de malignização. O câncer colorretal é a quinta neoplasia maligna mais frequente no Brasil, e se estima que 26.990 novos casos tenham sido diagnosticados no ano de 2008, o que evidencia sua alta frequência. Estes valores correspondem a um risco estimado de 13 casos novos a cada 100 mil homens e 15 para cada 100 mil mulheres. Associado a isso, a grande maioria dos tumores malignos se origina dos adenomas, e a detecção e retirada precoces evitam a progressão para o câncer.
An incisional hernia is usually deﬁned as a chronic postoperative defect of the abdominal wall through which intra-abdominal viscera protrude. Progress in surgical techniques, even with laparoscopic surgery, has not led to the elimination of incisional hernias. On the contrary, the incidence of this complication seems to be increasing as more major and lengthy operations are being performed, especially in elderly patients with concomitant organic disease. The incidence of this condition has been reported to be as high as 11% of all laparotomies. Surgical repair is difﬁcult in the patient with a large abdominal wall defect, especially if the herniated viscera has “lost its right of domain” in the abdominal cavity. It must be remembered that surgical repair of an incisional hernia is not the same thing as closure of a laparotomy. Weakening of the abdominal wall and the consequences of decreased abdominal pressure on diaphragmatic mobility and respiratory function must also be considered. Placement of a prosthetic mesh is essential because without mesh, the recurrence rate is prohibitive, varying from 30% to 60%. The which is the subject of this article, was popularized by Jean Rives and has been used in our department since 1966.
Sigmoid diverticulitis is a common disease which carries both a significant morbidity and a societal economic burden. Recently published data indicate that sigmoid diverticulitis does not mandate surgical management after the second episode of uncomplicated disease as previously recommended. Rather, a more individualized approach, taking into account frequency, severity of the attacks and their impact on quality of life, should guide the indication for surgery. On the other hand, complicated diverticular disease still requires surgical treatment in patients with acceptable comorbidity risk and remains a life-threatening condition in the case of free peritoneal perforation. Laparoscopic surgery is increasingly accepted as the surgical approach of choice for most presentations of the disease and has also been proposed in the treatment of generalized peritonitis. There is not sufficient evidence supporting any changes in the approach to management in younger patients. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that surgery should be indicated after one attack of uncomplicated disease in immunocompromised individuals.
A doença hemorroidária é uma afecção bastante comum, contudo sua prevalência é subestimada devido a vários fatores, sendo os principais: variabilidade dos sintomas clínicos, grande número de pacientes assintomáticos e vergonha por parte do paciente na informação ao seu médico assistente. A taxa de prevalência varia de 5% até 15% na população geral. Ocorre mais usualmente na raça branca, no sexo masculino, após a 3a década de vida e em pessoas com melhor condição econômica.
A trombose hemorroidária é uma complicação aguda que ocorre tanto nas hemorróidas externas como internas, caracterizada pela presença de isquemia e trombo nos coxins vasculares submucosos do canal anal.
As hemorróidas ocorrem como resultado da degeneração dos tecidos de sustentação e suporte dos coxins vasculares anais (arteríolas, vênulas, comunicações arterio-venosas, músculo e tecido conjuntivo . As hemorróidas internas, externas e mistas são diferenciadas por sua origem anatômica no canal anal.
As hemorróidas internas originam-se acima da linha pectínea (endoderme), são recobertas pela mucosa anal (epitélio) e não tem inervação sensorial. As hemorróidas externas originam-se abaixo da linha pectínea (ectoderme), são recobertas por epitélio estratificado e inervadas pelo ramo retal inferior.
Quando ocorre a trombose nesses plexos submucosos, há uma reação inflamatória aguda, com eritema, calor e tumor local, que é responsável pelos sintomas apresentados pelos doentes.
Alguns pacientes apresentam volumosa estase sangüínea nos plexos hemorroidários, externos e internos, que pode evoluir para um processo inflamatório endoflebítico. Quando a área atingida é extensa, também é chamada de pseudo-estrangulamento hemorroidário. Associa-se freqüentemente a intenso edema e, sem tratamento, pode evoluir para ulceração e necrose da área afetada. Seu aparecimento é abrupto. A dor é muito intensa, contínua e tipo latejante. Há secreção e sangramento perianal, com características arteriais. Pode haver dificuldade evacuatória e retenção urinária. Diferentemente do hematoma perianal, raramente se evidenciam nódulos azulados, mas sim, intenso edema local. O diagnóstico da trombose hemorroidária é simples e fácil. Pela inspeção do ânus observa-se a presença de processo inflamatório agudo nos plexos hemorroidários, caracterizado por intenso edema, necrose e/ou ulceração. Eventualmente, o comprometimento plexular pode atingir e/ou ultrapassar a linha pectínea.
FATORES DE RISCO
Os principais fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da doença hemorroidária complicada são:
Gravidez / Pós-parto imediato
Trauma local (Fezes Ressecadas)
Os sintomas mais freqüentes são: dor anal aguda (proctalgia aguda) e constante, tumor anal com ou sem prolapso mucoso, e ás vezes sangramento (hematoquezia) na roupa íntima ou no papel higiênico. A dor tem maior intensidade nas primeiras 72 horas podendo regredir após esse período, assim que o trombo organizar-se, ocorrendo a involução espontânea em 7 a 10 dias. Muitas vezes a dor não é proporcional ao volume da trombose hemorroidária.
Deve-se pesquisar o hábito dietético e intestinal, a presença ou não de discrasias sangüíneas, doenças inflamatórias intestinais, hipertensão portal, doenças imunossupressoras (uso de AIHs – Predisona), anorexia, perda de peso e dor abdominal associada. Além do exame físico completo, é obrigatória a inspecção e palpação da região anal em posição de Sims (decúbito lateral esquerdo) ou genu-peitoral. Usualmente visibilizamos tumor anal doloroso e endurecido, de cor violácea ou avermelhada com sangramento (trombose ulcerada) ou não (trombose íntegra). Quando existem outros mamilos hemorroidários trombosados ou prolabados, caracteriza-se a trombose hemorroidária extensa.
O tratamento deve ser discutido com o pacientes e seus responsáveis visando o esclarecimento da conduta proposta. Ele poderá ser clínico ou operatório dependendo de vários fatores associados ao paciente (co-morbidades), momento do diagnóstico (mais de 72 horas) e finalmente ao estágio da doença hemorroidária.
5.1 Tratamento Clínico – Associa-se o uso de analgésicos por via oral a cada 4 a 6 horas, pomada heparinóide aplicada (Hirudóide R) sobre a tumoração local a cada 6 horas, medicamentos mucilaginosos como o Metamucil R ou Plantaben R, se houver obstipação intestinal e banhos de assento com água morna. Evitar, se possível, anti-inflamatórios por via oral ou injetável.
Quando o intenso edema e a necrose provocados pela trombose hemorroidária é irredutível a qualquer manobra para reduzi-la, mesmo sob analgesia, pode agravar o processo tromboflebítico. Seu tratamento, nestes casos, é preferencialmente cirúrgico, em caráter de urgência, desde que as condições clínicas do enfermo permitam a operação. A técnica a ser empregada, deverá ser aquela na qual o cirurgião tenha maior experiência. A hemorroidectomia, nesta fase aguda, tem apresentado resultados bons, desde que respeitadas as bases técnicas da cirurgia anorretal. Ela é segura e efetiva, ocasionando raras complicações pós-operatórias quando comparada à cirurgia eletiva. As vantagens deste procedimento na urgência são: alívio imediato dos sintomas, cura dos mamilos hemorroidários, diminuição do tempo de recuperação e menor período de inatividade do paciente.
5.2 Tratamento Operatório – A indicação operatória criteriosa, a anestesia apropriada, a técnica utilizada e os cuidados pós-operatórios adequados, são comemorativos importantes no sucesso do tratamento. Para as tromboses hemorroidárias localizadas preferimos a hemorroidectomia à Milligan-Morgan (técnica aberta) ou Ferguson (técnica fechada) com anestesia local com ou sem sedação endo-venosa; ou a trombectomia, que é a retirada do trombo somente, com anestesia local, em caráter ambulatorial. Para as tromboses hemorroidárias grandes e/ou extensas, preferimos a hemorroidectomia à Milligan-Morgan com anestesia raque e internação por 24 horas .
Pós-Operatório Imediato – Utilizamos dieta com fibras e analgésicos usuais por via endo-venosa e/ou opiáceos, no caso de dor intensa. As complicações pós-operatórias, mais importantes, são:
– Dor: Esta diretamente relacionada à técnica empregada e aos cuidados intra e pós-operatórios. Hemostasia adequada, fios de sutura finos, preservação das fibras musculares e mínimo trauma local são fundamentais para minimizá-la.
– Sangramento: A ligadura adequada dos pedículos vasculares e hemostasia rigorosa durante a hemorroidectomia são muito importantes na sua prevenção. O sangramento tardio é raro e, em geral, ocorre entre sete a dez dias após o procedimento, cessando, em sua maioria, espontaneamente.
– Fecaloma: O receio de que a evacuação pós-operatória possa desencadear ou agravar a dor da hemorroidectomia poderá fazer que alguns pacientes inibam a defecação podendo ocasionar a impactação fecal no reto com a formação de fecalomas. São tratados com enemas evacuatórios.
– Retenção urinária: Sua etiologia é controversa, porém o bloqueio anestésico e a pressão e distensão intra-retais são fatores desencadeantes importantes.
– Fissura anal: Está relacionada à má cicatrização da ferida operatória da hemorroidectomia, ao trauma e laceração do anoderma durante a evacuação. Acarreta intensa dor anal à evacuação no pósoperatório. Seu tratamento depende da sua extensão e gravidade, podendo ser clínico ou cirúrgico (por meio de uma esfincterotomia anal interna).
Estenose anal: Complicação tardia e mais comum quando se utiliza a técnica aberta, causando seu estreitamento, decorrente da fibrose cicatricial inelástica. Sua resolução é, com freqüência, cirúrgica (anoplastia).
Infecção da ferida operatória: Está relacionada aos cuidados pósoperatórios e são, com freqüência, decorrentes de má higiene local e falta de limpeza da ferida cirúrgica. Seu tratamento é clínico, por meio de banhos de assento com antisépticos, tais como, permanganato de potássio na diluição de 1:40.000, pomadas tópicas, antiinflamatórios e antibióticos.
Pós-Operatório Mediato – Dieta com fibras, analgésicos usuais ou associados a derivados da codeína, mucilaginosos ou laxativos no caso de obstipação intestinal e banhos de assento a cada 4 a 6 horas. Evitamos o uso de pomadas locais e anti-inflamatórios. Sempre recomendamos o retorno ambulatorial até a completa cicatrização da ferida operatória, assim como o tratamento do fator desencadeante da trombose hemorroidária.
The operative conduct of the biliary-enteric anastomosis centers around three technical steps: 1) identification of healthy bile duct mucosa proximal to the site of obstruction; 2) preparation of a segment of alimentary tract, most often a Roux-en-Y jejunal limb; and 3) construction of a direct mucosa-to-mucosa anastomosis between these two. Selection of the proper anastomosis is dictated by the indication for biliary decompression and the anatomic location of the biliary obstruction. A right subcostal incision with or without an upper midline extension or left subcostal extension provides adequate exposure for construction of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. Use of retractors capable of upward elevation and cephalad retraction of the costal edges are quite valuable for optimizing visual exposure of the relevant hilar anatomy.
Division of the ligamentum teres and mobilization of the falciform ligament off the anterior surface of the liver also facilitate operative exposure; anterocephalad retraction of the ligamentum teres and division of the bridge of tissue overlying the umbilical fissure are critical for optimal visualization of the vascular inflow and biliary drainage of segments II, III, and IV. Cholecystectomy also exposes the cystic plate, which runs in continuity with the hilar plate. Lowering of the hilar plate permits exposure of the left hepatic duct as it courses along the base of segment IVb. In cases of unilateral hepatic atrophy as a result of long-standing biliary obstruction or preoperative portal vein embolization, it is critical to understand that the normal anatomic relationships of the portal structures are altered. In the more common circumstance of right-sided atrophy, the portal and hilar structures are rotated posteriorly and to the right; as a result, the portal vein, which is typically most posterior, is often encountered first; meticulous dissection is necessary to identify the common bile duct and hepatic duct deep within the porta hepatis.
GIST, da sigla em inglês gastrointestinal stromal tumors, pertence a um grupo de tumores chamados sarcoma de partes moles. Essa neoplasia se diferencia dos outros tipos de tumores por iniciar-se na parede dos órgãos, junto às camadas musculares do trato gastrointestinal, mais especificamente, nas células do plexo mioenterico, chamadas células de Cajal. Tais células são responsáveis pela motilidade intestinal, sendo consideradas o marca-passo do trato gastrointestinal.
O tumor de GIST é relativamente raro, com estudos atuais mostrando uma prevalência anual em torno de 20 a 40 casos por milhão de habitantes. É mais comum entre pessoas de 50 a 60 anos de idade, sendo extremamente raros até os 20 anos. Por representar um tumor raro, recomenda-se que seja tratado por serviços especializados com cirurgiões do aparelho digestivo, que tenham experiência multidisciplinar na condução e no tratamento dos pacientes com este tumor.
O GIST pode se originar em qualquer local do trato gastrointestinal, do esôfago ao ânus. Em relação à distribuição, 50% a 60% das lesões são provenientes do estômago, 20% a 30% do intestino delgado, 10% do intestino grosso, 5% do esôfago e 5% de outros locais da cavidade abdominal.
A apresentação clínica dos pacientes portadores de GIST não é especifica e depende da localização e do tamanho do tumor. O GIST tem uma característica biológica que é uma mutação genética, com ativação do proto-oncogene Kit e a superexpressão do receptor tirosina quinase (c-Kit). Geralmente, o diagnóstico é feito por uma biópsia da lesão, que a depender da localização, pode ser feita por endoscopia, colonoscopia, ou ecoendoscopia. A tomografia computadorizada do abdômen é importante para avaliação da extensão do tumor e também pode ser utilizada em alguns casos para realização de biópsia do tumor. Não apresentam sinais e/ou sintomas específicos. Podem causar náuseas, vômitos, hemorragias intestinais (vômitos com sangue ou evacuações com sangue ou fezes enegrecidas), sensação de plenitude após alimentação, dor e distensão abdominal, ou presença de uma massa ou tumor palpável no abdômen.
O tratamento padrão para pacientes com GIST não metastático, ou seja, não provenientes de outros órgãos, é a ressecção cirúrgica completa da lesão. Muitas vezes é necessária a cirurgia radical e de grande porte, com a retirada de estruturas e órgãos aderidos, oferecendo a maior chance de cura. O tratamento com imatinib, e mais atualmente ao sunitinib, é utilizado para doença metastática ou irressecável, com intuito de diminuir o tamanho da lesão para que a cirurgia possa ser realizada em melhores condições locais. Tais drogas também podem ser utilizadas após a cirurgia. Para o tratamento sistêmico pode ser necessário estudo genético específico para saber qual a mutação presente no tumor, com intuito de guiar a terapia em relação à dose e tipo de medicação utilizada.
FATORES DE RISCO
Não há fatores de risco diretamente relacionados a essa neoplasia. Manter hábitos de vida saudáveis, uma alimentação balanceada e a prática de exercícios físicos ajudam, de maneira geral, na prevenção do câncer.
PARA MAIS INFORMAÇÕES: http://www.gistsupport.org/
Este texto se propõe a esclarecer diversos aspectos sobre a experiência da espera e também da realização do transplante hepático, de modo a responder e informar sobre as dúvidas mais freqüentes e ajudar os pacientes e seus familiares a encarar esse momento de maneira mais consciente e tranquila.
1. Quando está indicado o transplante?
O transplante está indicado em diversas doenças do fígado em especial a cirrose hepática, quando os exames de sangue indicam uma função diminuída do órgão ou quando ocorrem alguns sintomas como ascite (líquido no abdome), sangramento digestivo ( por varizes de esôfago), encefalopatia hepática (esquecimento anormal, tremores nas mãos, confusão mental, dificuldade de raciocínio e insônia) ou peritonite bacteriana (infecção no líquido ascítico). Cada caso é avaliado isoladamente pela equipe médica. O transplante também é freqüentemente indicado para alguns tumores originários do fígado (hepatocarcinoma). Estes nódulos costumam estar associados à cirrose hepática e o transplante também tem bons resultados nestes casos, uma vez que esse tipo de nódulo não costuma disseminar para fora do fígado e o transplante então, nestes casos, retira o fígado doente juntamente com o nódulo. Existem outras indicações de transplante menos comuns como colangite esclerosante (doença da via biliar-canais que levam a bile para fora do fígado), obstrução intratável de vias biliares por cálculos dentro do fígado. São exemplos de doenças causando obstrução destas vias biliares, que podem levar a um tipo especial de infecção por acúmulo de bile chamada de colangite (dor no abdome, febre e olhos amarelos-icterícia). Em casos específicos o transplante é indicado como “Priorização ou urgência zero” (o paciente é colocado na frente da fila) quando se trata de casos de hepatite fulminante, um tipo mais grave de hepatite em que a função do fígado é perdida em dias e então o tratamento é de urgência, ou nos casos de perda do fígado transplantado (enxerto) até 30 dias após o transplante.
2. Quais são as contra-indicações ao transplante hepático?
O transplante não é indicado em situações de doença avançada em outros órgãos que não o fígado, em casos de tumores fora do fígado, quando o paciente faz abuso atual de drogas ou de álcool. Pode-se contra-indicar o transplante quando o paciente é totalmente incapaz de seguir as orientações médicas. Não se deve realizar o transplante quando o paciente está naquele momento com infecção em atividade (pode ser operado quando houver melhora). A idade avançada atualmente não é mais uma contra-indicação absoluta ao transplante, devendo-se avaliar cada caso isoladamente, pode-se incluir na fila pacientes acima de 70 anos após avaliação cardiológica no centro transplantador.
3. A fila de transplante
A fila de transplante de fígado no Brasil até 14 de junho de 2006 funcionava pela ordem em que eram inscritos os pacientes, recebendo o órgão na medida em que chegavam ao topo de lista. Com o novo critério do Meld/Peld, os centros transplantadores inscrevem os pacientes e o órgão é direcionado para cada centro conforme o resultado do “Meld” dos pacientes. Na realidade a fila é subdividida em quatro, pelo tipo sanguíneo. (grupo A, O, B e AB). Assim, havendo doação de um órgão do tipo “A” ele será para o primeiro paciente Meld dessa lista. Alguns tipos sanguíneos são raros como AB. Estes pacientes podem receber órgãos de todos os outros tipos, entrando simultaneamente nas filas de A, B, AB e O. Além disso, o transplante depende de um órgão compatível com o tamanho de cada paciente, de modo que os dez primeiros pacientes de cada lista, pelo novo critério “Meld/Peld” podem ser chamados de acordo com a doação de órgãos menores ou maiores.
4. O fígado “não ideal” (marginal)
Fígado “não ideal” (marginal) é um tipo especial de enxerto (o fígado doado), no qual se observa um pouco mais de gordura, ou em situações em que o doador não está em condições ideais como após uma parada cardíaca que tenha sido revertida, por exemplo. Estes órgãos podem ser direcionados para alguns pacientes que teriam uma necessidade mais urgente da cirurgia, de acordo com a avaliação da equipe, especialmente os pacientes com tumores no fígado.
5. A equipe
A equipe é composta por médicos cirurgiões, anestesistas , clínicos, hepatologistas,infectologistas,radiologista hemodinâmico, ultrassonografista, equipe de endoscopia,psicólogas, fisioterapeutas, nutricionistas, assistente sociais, dentistas, enfermeiros, etc. O paciente deve passar pela avaliação de toda a equipe ao longo do preparo para o transplante. Abordaremos adiante com mais detalhes cada avaliação.
6. Como proceder em caso de emergências durante a espera pelo transplante
São urgências médicas e o paciente deve comparecer ao Pronto socorro do Hospital onde faz seu acompanhamento clinico ou procurar o serviço de emergência mais próximo a sua casa ou entrar em contato com o seu médico particular:
1-vômitos com sangue vivo,
2- fezes com sangue vivo ou escurecido,
3-queda de pressão, mal estar súbito,
4-colangite (febre, dor no abdome e olhos amarelos),
5- peritonite (infecção do líquido no abdome levando a dor, aumento de volume e febre) ou outra anormalidade.
7. As reuniões com a Coordenação de Enfermagem de Transplantes
A coordenação convoca reuniões abertas a todos os pacientes transplantados, aqueles que estão na fila e seus familiares. Durante a reunião são realizados depoimentos, troca de experiências , colocação de dúvidas.. É fornecida também a localização na lista dos pacientes. A presença de todos é muito bem vinda.
8. A doação de órgãos através de doador em morte encefálica
A doação de órgãos é um ato voluntário, após o consentimento dos familiares. Para que isso ocorra, é necessário que o paciente esteja em morte encefálica, uma condição especial em que não existe mais atividade neurológica (cérebro e sistema nervoso) , porém ainda existe atividade cardíaca e dos demais órgãos. A entidade responsável pelo processo de doação é o Rio transplante. Os dados relativos ao doador são sigilosos.
9. Chamada para o transplante
Caso já esteja em topo de lista, mantenha-se alcançável, através de telefone e a uma distância de no máximo duas horas do hospital, caso venha a ser chamado. Mantenha a coordenação de transplante atualizada em relação aos seus números de telefone. A chamada para a cirurgia será realizada pela coordenação do transplante. Eventualmente o paciente poderá ser chamado e o órgão doado ser considerado inadequado para o transplante.
A CIRURGIA DE TRANSPLANTE HEPÁTICO
O transplante é uma cirurgia delicada com duração de 5 a 8 horas em média e consiste em duas etapas: a captação-retirada do órgão no local da doação. Neste momento, o fígado é considerado apto, não ideal (marginal) ou inapto. Enquanto parte da equipe cirúrgica se desloca para o hospital onde ocorre a doação, o receptor provável se dirige ao centro de transplante do hospital onde você é acompanhado. A segunda parte da cirurgia é o transplante propriamente dito, onde o fígado nativo é retirado, implantado o novo órgão e realizado por fim as junções (anastomoses) das veias, da artéria hepática e da via biliar.
O pós- operatório imediato
O pós- operatório imediato é realizado no UTI. É possível que você permaneça no UTI por um período de 48 horas. Pode ser que você desperte da cirurgia com um tubo para ajudá-lo a respirar que deve ser retirado em breve. Além disso haverão outros utensílios conectados a você para que tudo possa ser monitorizado com segurança como: eletrodos no tórax para contagem dos batimentos do coração, uma sonda para urinar, uma veia profunda, um pequeno aparelho no dedo para medir oxigenação e finalmente um dreno no abdome que pode ser retirado ao final de uma semana e por vezes um dreno biliar que permanecerá por 4 a 6 meses.
A média de internação após o transplante é de 2 semanas, mas isso varia muito de acordo com cada paciente. Durante a internação você deve colher exames de sangue quase diariamente, realizar ultra-som abdominal, rx do pulmão e outros exames que se fizerem necessários. Após a saída da UTI, procure se movimentar e andar assim que for possível. Não se esqueça dos exercícios respiratórios.
Os medicamentos chamados imunosupressores (que evitam rejeição), são fornecidos pelo SUS. Quando estiver próximo da sua alta, a equipe médica deve te entregar uma solicitação de medicações especiais (SME) , junto com receituário simples, com a sua dose e a sua medicação. Algum familiar seu deve estar disponível para levar essas receitas no Posto de Distribuição de Medicamentos de Alto Custo- SUS, indicado pela equipe médica, onde se fará seu cadastro. Deve ser levado também comprovante de residência, cartão nacional do SUS feito em qualquer posto de saúde, identidade e CPF do paciente. A partir daí, a medicação estará disponível. Mensalmente será exigido um receituário simples com a sua medicação e trimestralmente novas vias do SME para renovação do processo. Outras medicações de rotina não fornecidas pelo SUS e devem ser providenciadas pela família. Algumas medicações comumente utilizadas são: sulfametoxazol+trimetoprim (Bactrimâ-uso por 6 meses), omeprazol (variável), Prednisona (em geral 3 meses), entre outras.
Intercorrências após o transplante
A maioria dos pacientes tem receio do quadro de rejeição, porém, este tipo de ocorrência, além de assintomática, não leva a maiores riscos, na grande maioria dos casos. As infecções, bacterianas ou virais, são mais comuns e podem ser mais preocupantes. Desse modo, caso você apresente febre, deve procurar a equipe de transplante. Manter uma vida saudável, não beber, fazer exercícios e seguir as recomendações médicas é muito importante.
A alta Hospitalar
Antes da alta, além da orientação médica, você deve receber orientação fisioterápica, nutricional, da enfermagem e de outros profissionais que se fizerem necessários. Receberá uma marcação de consulta, solicitação de exames laboratoriais e uma receita.
O Seguimento inicial até o sexto mês
O acompanhamento inicial normalmente é realizado semanalmente no primeiro mês, quinzenalmente no segundo mês, de três em três semanas no terceiro mês e mensal, após, embora isso seja muito variável. Além do comparecimento às consultas, você deverá colher exames laboratoriais antes de cada consulta, de modo que é importante que você esteja disponível para comparecer ao hospital em várias situações.
O seguimento tardio: após o sexto mês
Após o sexto mês os intervalos de consultas podem oscilar de 45 a 60 dias, no máximo e de acordo com a orientação do seu médico.O paciente transplantado, em geral pode retomar suas atividades normais após o terceiro mês da cirurgia, caso tudo corra sem intercorrências. Pode dirigir após o primeiro mês, ter relações sexuais a partir de 3 a 4 semanas e fazer exercícios moderados a partir do segundo mês. Converse com seu médico. Retornos ambulatoriais:
1 mês : 2 a 3 vezes por semana
2 e 3 meses : 2 vezes por semana
4 mês ao 6 mês: cada 2 a 4 semanas
7 mês a 1 ano : cada 4 a 6 semanas
Após 1 ano : cada 6 a 8 semanas
As medicações a serem tomadas, especialmente os imunosupressores podem apresentar efeitos colaterais diversos. Os mais comuns são: Tremores, queimação nos pés e nas mãos, dor de cabeça, esquecimento, aumento da glicose e da pressão arterial, diminuição da função do rim, diarréia (principalmente nos primeiros dias). Esses efeitos ocorrem principalmente quando o nível dos imunosupressores está alto. A longo prazo, pode-se destacar aumento de risco de problemas de coração. Caso ocorra algum desses efeitos, não suspenda a medicação por conta própria pois estes remédios são imprescindíveis e fale com seu médico.
De uma forma geral o transplantado deve evitar ganhar peso em excesso, deve controlar o colesterol, a glicose e a pressão pois todos esses fatores podem piorar ou surgir após a cirurgia. Desse modo, evita problemas cardíacos no futuro. Bebidas alcoólicas devem ser evitadas. Deve-se usar máscara em locais fechados com muitas pessoas (principalmente no hospital) até o sexto mês da cirurgia. Evite contato com pessoas gripadas, terra e determinados animais. A exposição ao sol também deve ser evitada pois aumenta a incidência de câncer de pele. Não se esqueça de manter o acompanhamento ginecológico e dentário em dia. Diversas medicações podem interagir com os imunossupressores, dessa forma, evite tomar remédios sem recomendação médica.
EVOLUÇÃO HISTÓRICA DA HERNIORRAFIA INGUINAL
As hérnias não diminuem com o tempo, muito pelo contrário – o estado de saúde do paciente só tende a piorar, aumentando o risco cirúrgico – e não existe medicação para tratá-las. Os primeiros registros do tratamento cirúrgico das hérnias abdominais datam de 1500 a.C, mencionadas no Papiro de Ebers. Em 100 d.C. Celso, realizando os primórdios da cirurgia convencional, extirpava o saco herniário e deixava intactos o cordão e o testículo. Já em 700 d.C. , numa conduta mais agressiva, Pablo de Egina, sacrificava o testículo. Utilizando o princípio da cauterização dos tecidos pelo calor, Albucasis em 1000 d.C., expunha o saco herniário e o cauterizava. Com o advento da técnica asséptica registra-se, em 1869, a realização por Lister da primeira hérnia estrangulada em caráter de urgência com princípios antissépticos. O primeiro esboço de padronização da técnica operatória das hérnias abdominais ocorre a partir da publicação dos estudos de Edoardo Bassini, em 1887, primeiro estudo de reparo de hérnias com suturas. A técnica se propaga pelo mundo mas a deficiente comunicação e as múltiplas modificações levam a resultados negativos. Já em 1940, Earle Shouldice, usando quatro planos de reforço, revoluciona a técnica com tensão, principalmente após 1950 com um melhor entendimento da anatomia, porém observam-se ainda recorrências altas, acima de 10%. Em 1967, René Stoppa e Jean Rives, utilizam a técnica pré-peritoneal com a introdução de um novo conceito: a prótese. Uma tela gigante recobrindo todos os possíveis orifícios herniários, obtendo excelente taxa de recidiva, às custas da necessidade de incisão mediana e descolamento amplo pré-peritoneal.
Somente em 1984 Irving Lichtenstein, por via anterior, utiliza uma tela de polipropileno. Esta técnica foi considerada uma grande evolução e passou, nos anos 90, a ser considerado o Padrão Ouro nos reparos das hérnias inguinais possibilitando, pela primeira vez, o reparo ambulatorial com anestesia local e sedação. Com o inicio da cirurgia videolaparoscópica no início dos anos 90, desenvolveram-se diversas técnicas utilizando-se a tela pela técnica laparoscópica. Devido aos altos custos e complexidade do procedimento cirúrgico e anestésico em comparação à técnica por via aberta, estas não se estabeleceram como melhor opção. Finalmente, em 1997, Arthur Gilbert, inicia o sistema PHS (“Prolene Hernia System”) que reúne as vantagens quanto a recidiva do reparo pré-peritoneal, a simplicidade de fixação da técnica de plug e eficácia da técnica de tela plana através de um reparo tridimensional com uma tela dupla colocada pela via anterior. Dois anos mais tarde, ocorre a publicação dos primeiros resultados do PHS – `Hernia Institute of Florida – USA, firmando o aspecto inovador e a eficácia da tela dupla, otimizando o conforto e segurança do paciente e proporcionando retorno mais precoce às atividades laborativas e utilizando facilmente anestesia local e sedação.
Tromboembolismo venoso é complicação frequente após tratamento cirúrgico em geral e, de um modo especial, na condução terapêutica do câncer. A cirurgia do aparelho digestivo tem sido referida como potencialmente indutora desta complicação. Ela tem maior representatividade em determinados segmentos anatômicos e nas condições em que se associam fatores de risco dos pacientes. A prevenção do tromboembolismo é tema de grande importância na prática diária dos cirurgiões. Várias são as formas físicas e medicamentosas que podem ser utilizadas. Nos últimos anos abordagens novas, tanto em relação às manobras físicas como em posologia medicamentosa, têm sido estudadas com boa metodologia. Estes novos enfoques ainda são pouco divulgados e talvez pouco conhecidos pela maioria dos cirurgiões. No câncer a importância desse tema é ainda maior que nas doenças benignas. A Medicina Baseada em Evidências incorpora dados obtidos com base nas mais recentes revisões sistemáticas disponíveis na literatura originando várias formas de contribuições científicas. BOM ESTUDO.